A Common Law of International Adjudication

A Common Law of International Adjudication

by Chester Brown


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199563906
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 05/01/2009
Series: International Courts and Tribunals Series
Pages: 280
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Chestser Brown is an Assistant Legal Adviser to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Table of Contents

Table of Cases     xxi
Table of International Instruments     xli
List of Abbreviations     li
Introduction     1
Introduction to the Research Theme     1
Definitions and Scope     4
On the Term 'Common Law of International Adjudication'     4
On 'Procedure' and 'Remedies'     6
'Procedure' in International Adjudication     7
'Remedies' in International Adjudication     9
Scope of the Book     9
Aspects of International Adjudication     9
Coverage of International Courts and Tribunals     10
Outline of the Book     12
The Emergence of a Common Law of International Adjudication against a Background of Proliferation and Fragmentation     15
Introduction     15
Proliferation of International Courts and Tribunals     17
Reasons for Proliferation     22
Proliferation and Fragmentation     23
International Law as an '"Anarchical" Domain'?     23
Proliferation as a Cause of Jurisdictional Competition and Fragmentation     25
Overlapping Jurisdictions of International Courts     28
Doctrinal Inconsistencies in the Jurisprudence of International Courts     29
TheInternational Law Commission's Consideration of Fragmentation     32
Conclusion     33
Methods Used by International Courts and Tribunals to Engage in Cross-Fertilization     35
Introduction     36
Sources of Law relating to Procedure and Remedies     36
Constitutive Instruments of International Courts     37
Rules of Procedure of International Courts     38
Sources of Law when International Courts are faced with Lacunae     40
Interpretation by International Courts of their Constitutive Instruments     41
Custom, International Judicial Practice, and General Principles of Law     53
Inherent Powers     55
Inherent Powers in International Adjudication     55
The Concept of 'Inherent Powers'     55
Arguments against the Exercise of Inherent Powers by International Courts     58
The Exercise of Inherent Powers depends on Unlimited Compulsory Jurisdiction     58
International Courts can only exercise Expressly Conferred Powers     59
Inherent Powers in the Practice of International Courts     60
Source of Inherent Powers     66
Inherent Powers are derived from General Principles of Law     67
Inherent Powers are Implied Powers     69
Inherent Powers are Derived from the Identity of Courts as Judicial Bodies     70
Inherent Powers are Necessary to Ensure the Performance of the Functions of International Courts     71
Extent of the Inherent Powers of International Courts     72
Functions of International Adjudication     72
Limitations on the Exercise of Inherent Powers     78
Conclusion     81
Aspects of Evidence in International Adjudication     83
Introduction     83
Sources of Rules of Evidence in International Law     85
Constitutive Instruments     86
Other Sources of Evidentiary Rules in International Adjudication     88
Rules of Procedure     88
General Principles of Law     89
Inherent Powers     90
Evidential Issues in International Adjudication     90
Admission of Evidence     90
Burden of Proof     92
Standard of Proof     97
Conclusion     101
Powers of International Courts Regarding Evidence     102
Judicial Notice of Facts     102
Power to Order the Production of Evidence     104
Power to Make Site Visits     111
Power to Order Expert Reports     112
Conclusion      118
Power of International Courts to Grant Provisional Measures     119
Introduction     119
Purpose of Provisional Measures in International Adjudication     121
Source of the Power to Grant Provisional Measures     123
Constitutive Instruments of International Courts     123
Rules of Procedure of International Courts     125
Power to Grant Provisional Measures as a General Principle of Law     126
Power to Grant Provisional Measures as an Inherent Power     127
The Power is necessary to carry out the Functions of International Courts     128
Practice of International Courts supporting the Existence of the Power     130
Limitations on the Power to Grant Provisional Measures     133
Common Features in the Exercise of the Power     135
Question of Jurisdiction over the Merits     136
Circumstances Relevant to the Granting of Provisional Measures     139
Prevention of Irreparable Prejudice to the Rights of the Parties     139
Urgency     142
Other Factors     145
Binding Quality of Provisional Measures     146
Power to Grant Provisional Measures Ultra Petita or Proprio Motu     150
Conclusion     151
Power of International Courts to Interpret and Revise Judgments and Awards     152
Introduction     153
Post-Adjudication Role of International Courts and Tribunals     153
Finality of Adjudication     153
Limits to the Principle of Finality     156
Source of the Powers of Interpretation and Revision     158
Constitutive Instruments of International Courts     158
Power of Interpretation     158
Power of Revision     159
Rules of Procedure of International Courts     160
Power of Interpretation     160
Power of Revision     161
Powers of Interpretation and Revision as Inherent Powers     161
Possible Objections to the Powers as Inherent Powers     161
Practice of International Courts supporting the Existence of the Powers     165
Power of Interpretation     165
Power of Revision     166
Exercise of Post-Adjudication Powers in WTO Dispute Settlement     171
Conclusion     173
Issues relevant to the Exercise of the Powers of Interpretation and Revision     173
Jurisdiction of the International Court hearing the Request     175
Composition of the International Court hearing the Request     176
Scope of the Powers      177
Conditions for the Exercise of the Powers     178
Power of Interpretation     178
Power of Revision     179
Conclusion     183
Remedies in International Adjudication     185
Introduction     185
Source of the Power to Award Remedies     187
'Reparation' as the Remedy in International Law     190
Generally     190
The Three Forms of Reparation     190
Agreement and Disagreement in the Law of Remedies     192
Forms of Reparation in Particular Disputes     195
Restitution     195
Compensation     198
Compensation for Damage to the State     199
Compensation for Injury to Private Property     200
Compensation for Personal Injury     206
Declaratory Judgments     208
Mandatory or Consequential Orders     209
An available remedy in International Adjudication?     209
Practice of International Courts making such Orders     212
Remedies in WTO Dispute Settlement     216
WTO Remedies as Lex Specialis     217
Influence of Reparation in WTO Dispute Settlement     220
Conclusion     223
A Common Law of International Adjudication: Reasons and Limitations     225
Introduction     225
Reasons for the Emerging Common Law of International Adjudication     226
Limitations to the Development of a Common Law of International Adjudication     234
Conclusion     237
Implications of a Common Law of International Adjudication     238
Introduction     238
Practical Implications     239
Generally     239
Practical Implications with respect to Problems posed by Proliferation     240
Power of Summary Dismissal     242
Power to Suspend Proceedings     250
Power to Enjoin Parties from pursuing Parallel Proceedings     252
Conclusion     255
Theoretical Implications     255
Conclusion     258
Conclusion     260
Bibliography     263
Index     295

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