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ISBN-13: 9780131558137
Publisher: Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Publication date: 11/28/1991
Series: Speech Communication Series
Pages: 436
Product dimensions: 7.56(w) x 9.22(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Communication as Process
1(38)
Communication: A Process View
3(2)
Process Defined
3(1)
Effects of a Process View
4(1)
Communication Elements and Processes
5(10)
Source and Receiver
5(2)
Messages and Message Carriers
7(2)
Response and Feedback
9(1)
Situation
10(2)
Culture
12(1)
Receiving and Sending
13(1)
Perceiving and Interpreting
13(2)
Perceptions Are Learned
15(7)
A Learned Process
16(6)
Overview
22(14)
Popular Misconceptions
22(1)
Types of Communication
23(2)
Models of Communication
25(11)
Questions
36(1)
Summary
36(1)
Questions for Discussion
37(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
37(2)
Self-Concept in Communication
39(27)
The Nature of Self Concept
40(5)
Self-Concept and Attitudes
41(4)
Development of Self-Concept
45(12)
Awareness of Self
45(1)
Awareness of Others and Roles
45(2)
Developing Self-Identification
47(5)
Gender
52(2)
Culture
54(1)
Lifelong Development
54(3)
Communication and Self-Concept
57(7)
The Pygmalion Effect
57(1)
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
58(1)
Selectivity
59(1)
Openness and Self-Confidence
59(5)
Summary
64(1)
Questions for Discussion
64(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
65(1)
Using Language to Share Meanings
66(25)
The Meaning of Meaning
68(3)
Definitions, Only Part of Meaning
69(1)
Valuing Is Part of Meaning
70(1)
Learning Language, Learning to Perceive
71(3)
Learned Concepts Are Represented by Words
71(1)
Concepts Reflect Synthesis
71(1)
Concepts Are Ideas Created by Experience
72(1)
Concepts Involve Categories
73(1)
Concepts Reflect Culture
73(1)
Using Language More Effectively
74(10)
Using Language to Reflect Categories
74(2)
Using Language with Clarity
76(1)
Using Language Appropriate for Context
77(7)
Language Evolution
84(5)
Slang and Jargon
84(1)
Other Changes
85(1)
Racist Language
86(1)
Sexist Language
86(3)
Summary
89(1)
Questions for Discussion
90(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
90(1)
Using Nonverbal Cues
91(34)
Some Cautions
92(4)
Using a Baseline
93(2)
Seeing Parts to Understand the Whole
95(1)
Visually Received Message Carriers
96(12)
Actions
96(6)
Appearance
102(2)
Use of Objects
104(1)
Space
104(4)
Aurally Received Message Carriers
108(2)
Voice Qualities
108(1)
Vocalizations
109(1)
Environmental Sounds
109(1)
Touch
110(2)
Message Carriers from Other Channels
112(3)
Time
112(1)
Smell
112(1)
Environment
113(2)
Uses of Nonverbal Messages
115(7)
Interpreting Verbal Messages, Source Feelings, and Attributes
115(2)
Supporting or Replacing Verbal Messages
117(2)
Masking and Contradiction
119(1)
Regulating Interactions
120(2)
Summary
122(1)
Questions for Discussion
123(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
123(2)
Thinking: The Key to Communicating Well
125(24)
Memory
126(3)
A Dynamic Storage System
126(2)
Recall and Reconstruction
128(1)
Reasoning
129(5)
Generalization and Deduction
130(1)
Other Reasoning Processes
131(3)
Thinking Errors (Reasoning Fallacies)
134(10)
Inadequate Observations
134(1)
Inference-Observation Confusion
135(5)
Reasoning Fallacies
140(4)
Toulmin's Model for Analysis of Reasoning
144(2)
Summary
146(1)
Questions for Discussion
147(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
147(2)
Listening Well, Responding Appropriately
149(35)
Listening Situations
150(4)
Levels of Involvement
150(3)
Similarities in Situations
153(1)
Effective Listening: Understanding the Words
154(7)
Be Prepared
154(1)
Set Goals
154(2)
Use Listening Speed Efficiently
156(1)
Identify Thought Structure
157(1)
Listen for What Is Not Said
158(1)
Minimize Distractions
158(1)
Use Feedback
159(2)
Effective Listening: Understanding the Source
161(8)
Theories of Human Motivation
161(4)
Communication Purposes and Motivation
165(2)
Listen for What Is Not Said
167(2)
Empathic Listening
169(6)
Goals, Limitations, Benefits
169(1)
Nonverbals in Receiving and Responding
170(1)
Directive and Nondirective Responding
171(4)
Listening to Evaluate
175(6)
Assessing Values
176(1)
Distinguishing Facts, Observations, and Inferences
177(1)
Using Criteria to Evaluate Inferences
177(4)
Summary
181(1)
Questions for Discussion
182(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
182(2)
Interpersonal Relationships
184(38)
How Relationships Develop
185(7)
Interpersonal Perception
185(1)
Interpersonal Attraction
186(3)
Needs and Emotions
189(1)
Roles and Norms
190(2)
Maintaining Relationships
192(8)
Taking Others' Perspectives
192(2)
Sharing
194(1)
Reducing Defensiveness
195(5)
Trust
200(7)
Building Trust
200(4)
Using Appropriate Self-Disclosure
204(3)
Personal Differences
207(5)
Communication Styles
207(1)
Using I Messages
208(4)
Family Communication
212(7)
Expectations
212(4)
The Pressures of Intimacy
216(3)
Summary
219(1)
Questions for Discussion
220(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
220(2)
Intercultural Communication
222(24)
The Melting Pot Myth
223(1)
Communicating Across Difference
224(4)
Learning to Accept Difference
224(2)
Valuing Differences
226(2)
Verbal and Nonverbal Differences
228(5)
Language and Stereotypes
228(2)
Nonverbal Communication
230(3)
Subcultures
233(5)
Interethnic Communication
235(1)
Interracial Communication
235(1)
Counterculatural Communication
236(1)
The Dominant Culture
236(2)
Gender
238(4)
Improving Intercultural Communication
242(1)
Developing Intercultural Awareness
242(1)
Using Intercultural Skills
242(1)
Summary
243(1)
Questions for Discussion
244(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
245(1)
Making Decisions in Groups
246(26)
Factors Affecting Group Processes
247(8)
Purpose and Goals
247(2)
Maturity of the Group
249(1)
Relation to Outsiders
250(1)
Member Involvement
251(1)
Methods of Deciding
252(3)
Establishing Group Goals
255(6)
Advantages of Agendas
255(2)
Setting Agendas
257(1)
A Suggested Agenda
257(4)
Leadership
261(4)
A Functional Approach
262(1)
Task and Climate Leadership
263(1)
A Situational Approach
264(1)
Managing Conflict
265(4)
Value of Conflict
265(1)
Types of Conflict
265(1)
Avoiding Destructive Conflict
266(1)
The Cooperative Spirit
267(2)
Summary
269(1)
Questions for Discussion
270(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
270(2)
Communicating in the New Workforce
272(31)
Functioning in the New Workforce
273(8)
Value of Communication
273(1)
Common Problems
274(5)
Achieving Career Goals through Communication
279(2)
Relating to Diverse Populations
281(2)
Intercultural Communication
281(2)
Male--Female Communication at Work
283(1)
Interviews
283(7)
The Employment Interview
284(2)
Information Interviews
286(1)
Evaluation Interviews
286(1)
Factors Common to All Types of Interviews
287(3)
Understanding the Organization
290(4)
Effects of Organizational Structure
290(2)
Communication Channels
292(2)
Assertive Communication
294(6)
Rights to Be Assertive
294(2)
Acceptance of Self
296(1)
Assertive Behaviors
296(3)
Be Assertive, Not Aggressive
299(1)
Summary
300(1)
Questions for Discussion
301(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
302(1)
Preparing Speeches: Organizing Thoughts
303(27)
Establishing Goals
304(5)
Select a Topic
304(2)
State a Purpose
306(1)
Analyze the Audience
306(1)
Secure Needed Information
307(2)
Reexamine Purpose
309(1)
Organizing Ideas: The Thesis
309(2)
Thesis and Purpose
310(1)
Organizing Ideas: The Outline
311(7)
Value of Outlining
312(1)
Choose Main Points (Establish Structure)
312(4)
Arrange the Main Points
316(1)
Develop Main Points
317(1)
Developing the Introduction and Conclusion
318(7)
Introductions
319(4)
Conclusions
323(2)
A Sample Outline
325(2)
Summary
327(1)
Questions for Discussion
328(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
328(2)
Preparing Speeches: Developing Ideas
330(19)
Uses of Supporting Materials
331(5)
Developing Ideas
331(2)
Maintaining Attention
333(1)
Attention Factors
334(2)
Types of Supporting Materials
336(7)
Verbal Techniques
336(4)
Visual Techniques
340(3)
Sources and Advantages of Supporting Materials
343(4)
Personal Experience
343(1)
Library Research
343(2)
Advantages of Supporting Information
345(2)
Summary
347(1)
Questions for Discussion
347(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
347(2)
Public Speaking: Using Voice and Body
349(22)
The Guiding Principle
350(1)
Use Conversational Style
351(4)
Speak Extemporaneously
351(1)
Use Appropriate Language Style
352(3)
Nonverbal, Nonvocal Communication
355(5)
Improve the Environment
356(1)
Use Action and Appearance
357(2)
Use Your Face and Eyes
359(1)
Vocal Message Carriers
Rate and Volume
360(1)
Pitch
360(3)
Quality
363(1)
Articulation
363(2)
Coping with Speech Anxiety
365(3)
Sources of Anxiety
365(1)
Preparation
366(1)
Using Nervous Energy
367(1)
Summary
368(1)
Questions for Discussion
369(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
370(1)
Persuasion
371(39)
The Nature of Persuasion
372(14)
Persuasion from Attitude Change Perspective
374(6)
Persuasion from Congnitive Response Perspective
380(2)
Credibility and Persuasion
382(4)
Persuasive Goal Setting
386(7)
Receiver Analysis Influences Goals
387(3)
Set Realistic Goals
390(2)
Receiver Analysis Techniques
392(1)
Developing the Persuasive Argument
393(3)
Create Imbalance and Reduce Dissonance
393(2)
Use Motive Appeals
395(1)
Organizing Persuasion
396(5)
Standard Outlines
396(2)
Overall Organization
398(3)
Improving Credibility
401(4)
Advance Knowledge
402(1)
The Environment---Setting
402(3)
Checklist for Planning the Persuasive Effort
405(2)
Summary
407(1)
Questions for Discussion
408(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
409(1)
Responding to the Mass Media
410(27)
Responding to Mass Communication
411(1)
Mass Media
412(6)
Gatekeepers Control Media Content
413(3)
Delayed Feedback
416(2)
Media Effects
418(8)
Direct Effects
418(3)
Indirect Effects
421(3)
Media Effects Theories
424(2)
Thinking about Mass Communication
426(2)
Advertising
428(6)
Strategies
430(4)
Summary
434(1)
Questions for Discussion
435(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
436(1)
Glossary 437(6)
Photo Credits 443(1)
Index 444

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