Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics: An International Conference at Dartmouth Medical School Hanover, New Hampshire, July 29-August 2, 1968

Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics: An International Conference at Dartmouth Medical School Hanover, New Hampshire, July 29-August 2, 1968

by Kurt Bernischke (Editor)

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Overview

Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics: An International Conference at Dartmouth Medical School Hanover, New Hampshire, July 29-August 2, 1968 by Kurt Bernischke

Ten years ago a symposium on Cytotaxonomy 'was held in London (Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 169:110, 1958) in which a first attempt was made to bring together various disciplines to discuss advances of mammalian cytogenetics and to put them into proper context with the sciences of evolution and taxonomy. The introductory remarks by \V. B. Turrill to that symposium, essentially an admonishment to be tolerant of the short­ comings of our respective disciplines, would be a most appropriate begin­ ning to this conference as ,,'ell. However, the meeting held at Hanover was conceived more along the lines of remarks made by R. B. Seymour Se,,'ell in his presidential address to the same society: "It has been said that scientists in this search for truth are nowadays too much concerned with the accumulation of facts, and make too little use of their imagina­ tion in their attempts to explain such facts as they have accumulated. " (In "The continental drift theory and the distribution of the Copepoda," ibid. 166:149, 1956. ) \\Tith this as a background, two years ago we held the first of a series of loosely-structured conferences on reproductive failure in the relaxing atmosphere of this small New England college community. The manu­ scripts of that meeting have been published (Comparative Aspects of Re­ productive Failure, Springer-Verlag New York Inc. , 1967).

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642859458
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 04/09/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1969
Pages: 473
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

Species, Speciation, and Chromosomes.- The species concepts.- Reproductive isolation and chromosomal mutation.- The bottleneck of heterozygosity.- Mechanisms of Chromosomal Changes in Mammalian Speciation.- General introductio.- Numerical changes.- The Robertsonian process.- Non-Robertsonian changes.- The Mammalian Genome in Evolution and Conservation of the Original X-Linkage Group.- Importance of karyotypic differences.- Conservation of X-linkage.- Homology between non-homologues.- Summary.- Geographic Variation of Chromosome Forms in Spalax, a Subterranean Mammal of Restricted Mobility.- Distribution of Spalax, mole rats.- Identification of different karyotypes.- Mechanisms of chromosomal changes in Spalax.- Consideration of reproductive isolation.- Summary.- Induced Chromosomal Aberrations with Special Reference to Man.- General considerations of mutagenesis.- Cytological changes.- LSD effects.- Human “centric fusion” changes.- Other types of translocation in humans.- Lethal Chromosome Errors.- General considerations of lethal genetic errors.- Abortion studies in man.- Polyploidy.- Recognized abortions in man, trisomies.- Effects of triploidy, hydatidiform moles.- Semilethal errors.- XO anomaly.- Conclusions.- Meiosis in Mammals.- Studies at pachytene.- Chiasmata.- Structural changes.- Inversion.- Duplication and deficiency.- Reciprocal translocation.- Robertsonian translocation.- Insertion.- Summary.- Hybrid Sterility.- Cattle × Bison hybrids (Cattalos).- Chicken × Pheasant hybrids.- Electronmicroscopic studies.- Teratological results.- Summary.- Experimental Hybridization.- Fertilization and prenatal development.- Peromyscus.- Goat-sheep.- Ferret-mink.- Rabbit-hare.- Chromosome studies.- Hybrids reaching adult life.- Hybrids which die during pregnancy.- Ferret × mink.- Rabbit × snowshoe hare.- Discussion.- Summary.- Genetic Aspects of Infertility.- General considerations.- Anatomical malformations causing infertility.- Abnormalities in gametes.- Embryonic mortality and lethal genes.- Maternal effects.- Genetic indicators of infertility.- Other genetic variations in fertility; summary.- Gene Action in Human Diploid Cell Strains.- Gene action.- Cellular differentiation.- Relationship of method of obtaining variant cells to the cell type employed.- Genetic markers in human diploid cell cultures.- The single active X-theory.- Some examples of gene action in human diploid cell strains.- The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.- Hurler’s syndrome.- Orotic aciduria.- The theory of intercellular complementation.- Summary.- Chromosome Mosaics as Markers in Embryology.- Distribution of cells in XY/XXY mosaic embryo.- Possible origin of mosaic.- Embryologic consequences.- Consequences for Lyon hypothesis.- Summary.- Multipolar Mitosis and Somatic Segregation in Cell Cultures of Microtus Agrestis.- Tissue culture system.- Findings and conclusions.- Summary.- Cytogenetics of Marsupials.- Chromosome number in the marsupialia.- General.- Marsupials with 2n = 14.- Marsupials with 2n other than 14.- Conclusions.- Autosomal chromosomal polymorphism.- Sex chromosomes in the marsupials.- Sex determination in the marsupials.- Multiple sex chromosome systems.- The XX/XY sex chromosome systems in marsupials.- Sex chromosome mosaicism.- Marsupials as animals for genetic research.- Insectivore Cytogenetics.- General considerations.- Macroscelidae.- Talpidae, Erinaceidae.- Soricidae.- Tenrecidae.- Solenodontidae.- Tupaiidae.- Comments and Summary.- Cytologic Mechanisms of Karyotype Evolution in Insectivores.- General introduction.- Talpidae.- Erinaceidae.- Robertsonian polymorphism in genus Mus.- Concluding remarks.- Summary.- Patterns of Autosomal Heterochromatin.- General remarks.- Methodology—Erinaceidae.- Nuclear chromatin findings.- Tritiated thymidine labeling.- Metaphase spread correlations.- Autosomal heterochromatin in meiosis.- General conclusions.- Chromosomal Evolution in Rodents.- Chromosomal rearrangements.- Chromosome polymorphism.- Speciation and chromosomal diversity.- Hybridization.- Sex chromosomes.- Cytotaxonomy.- Summary.- Cytogenetic and Phylogenetic Studies in Carnivora.- Phylogenetic considerations of carnivores.- Marker chromosomes.- Canidae.- Mustelidae.- Felidae.- Viverridae.- Karyotype evolution.- Cytogenetic Studies of Some Armadillos.- Dasypus.- Euphractus.- Chaetophractus.- Cabassous.- Discussion.- Summary.- Addendum (Priodontes).- Artiodactyl Mammals: Their Chromosome Cytology in Relation to Patterns of Evolution.- Suiformes.- Tylopoda.- Ruminantia.- General discussion.- Sex chromosomes.- Perspectives.- Primates.- General discussion.- Methodology.- Prosimii.- Platyrrhini.- Catarrhini.- Chromosomal evolution.- Summary.- Considerations of Sex Chromosome Abnormalities in Man.- Review of normal development.- Theories and experiments relating to mammalian sex differentiation.- Cases 1–4.- Discussion.- Position of male determinators on Y.- Extragenital function of Y.- Testicular tissue in XX individuals.- Function of second X in females.- Summary.- Anomalies of Sex Chromosomes in Tortoiseshell Male Cats.- and nomenclature.- Report of two cases.- Summary of reported cases.- Theories of pathogenesis.- Meiotic non-disjunction.- Polyandry; suppression of polar body; fusion.- Failure of second meiotic division.- Abnormal syngamy; initial triploidy.- Fusion of zygotes.- Exchange of cells between twins.- Summary.- Aneuploidy, Polyploidy and Structural Rearrangement of Chromosomes in Mammals Other Than Man.- General introduction.- Terminology.- Timing of errors in development.- Polyploidy.- Findings in domestic animals.- Chimerism.- Possible causative factors of aneuploidy.- Voucher Specimens in Comparative Cytogenetic Studies.- Classical taxonomic considerations.- Handling of animal identification by cytogeneticist.- Deposition of specimens with museum collections.- Obligations of investigators, curators and editors.- Concluding Remarks: Where Do We Go From Here?.- Summary of Conference.- Technical Addendum.- Bone Marrow Preparations for Chromosome Studies.- Collection in field.- Direct bone marrow preparations.- Short-term bone marrow cultures.- Fixation.- Air-dried preparations.- Squash preparations.- Meiotic Preparations from Mammalian Testes.- Schedule.- Comments.- A Combined Toluidine Blue Stain and Mounting Medium.- General Technique.

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