ISBN-10:
0136491952
ISBN-13:
9780136491958
Pub. Date:
06/23/1999
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Comparative Politics : An Institutional and Cross-National Approach / Edition 3

Comparative Politics : An Institutional and Cross-National Approach / Edition 3

by Gregory S. Mahler

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780136491958
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 06/23/1999
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 383
Product dimensions: 7.06(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.75(d)

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PREFACE:

PREFACE

I am delighted to have been called upon to prepare a third edition of this volume. It is indeed gratifying that so many students have used this book over the last five years, and I am pleased that Prentice Hall has asked for an updating and revision of the manuscript.

As the first edition of this volume was going to press, Germany was evolving from two states to one. While Germany has made remarkable progress over the last several years, many observers note that this conversion process still has much to achieve before Germany can be said to have resolved all of the problems caused by unification.

More dramatic, of course, was the devolution and the ultimate demise of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The chapter on the USSR that appeared in the first edition, while anticipating substantial changes—because Mikhail Gorbachev had already come to power, and significant changes were appearing in the Soviet Union on a regular basis—was not able to do justice to the extent of change that resulted from Gorbachev's reforms. I do not believe that anyone would have predicted at that time the degree of change that has taken place over the ensuing years. In fact, the chapter on Russia in the second edition bore very little resemblance to the chapter on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the first edition. The last three years have seen equally radical—and not always beneficial—changes in Russia, and this edition's discussion of Russia includes much coverage of the new challenges facing the Russian Federation.

This edition has continued the inclusion of area studies chapters used in thesecond edition, including individual chapters on Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Canada, Mexico, Nigeria, and Russia. While this volume continues to include more discussion of stable, Western, democratic political systems than discussion of newer nations, non-Western nations, and nondemocratic nations, a concerted effort has been made to increase such discussion here. The inclusion of area studies chapters from the African (Nigeria) and Latin American (Mexico) contexts is a demonstration of a commitment to include substantial discussion of all types of political systems; however, space limits the number of individual political systems that can receive detailed description. As was indicated in the second edition, a good deal of what has happened in Nigeria and Mexico in recent years is characteristic of other African (and Asian, and Latin American) nations, so these case studies are of some value to us and to our students in our comparative undertaking.

Once again, this volume places an emphasis on political institutions—as indicated by the title—for the same reasons as in the first and second editions: their ease of comparison, their facility of identification and classification, and the extent to which they lend themselves to analysis. This emphasis on political institutions, combined with the cross-national perspective of this volume, gives students both the tools and the perspective to undertake a meaningful cross-national introduction to the political world in which they must operate.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Once again I would like to acknowledge the assistance and encouragement of the outstanding professionals at Prentice Hall who have been associated with this undertaking. Beth Gillett began thinking about a third edition remarkably soon after the second edition appeared. Joan Stone oversaw the production process at Prentice Hall. Jan McDearmon was also extremely important in the editing process.

I also want to thank the scholars who have been contacted over the years by Prentice Hall to review the several editions of the book. These individuals have made a number of very helpful suggestions. Much of the book's improved comprehensiveness is because of their advice, which was much appreciated.

Finally, I want to once again acknowledge the role of my students in the production of this book. It was my students' comments that initially convinced me to try my hand at writing a better text, and their subsequent comments have helped me a great deal in deciding what should be included in this type of work and the best way of presenting the material.

Gregory S. Mahler

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART ONE Comparative Political Analysis 1(178)
CHAPTER 1 Comparative Political Analysis: An Introduction
1(24)
Why Do We Study Politics?
1(3)
How Do We Study Politics?
4(2)
The Nature of Comparative Political Analysis
6(5)
The Political System
11(3)
Political Culture
14(2)
The Concept of Political Development
16(3)
The Institutional Approach
19(1)
The Comparative Method in Perspective
20(1)
Notes
21(4)
CHAPTER 2 Constitutions and Ideologies
25(20)
Constitutions as Political Structures
25(3)
What Do Constitutions Do?
28(2)
Constitutionalism and Federal Government
30(3)
The Separation of Powers
33(1)
The Importance of Constitutions
34(1)
Constitutions in a Comparative Perspective
35(1)
Ideologies
36(3)
Classification of Regimes
39(2)
Constitutions, Ideologies, and Classification
41(1)
Notes
42(3)
CHAPTER 3 Political Development and Political Economics
45(25)
Politics and Economics
45(8)
Institutions and Economic Development
53(5)
Political Economics and Political Development
58(7)
The Future for Developing Nations
65(1)
Notes
65(5)
CHAPTER 4 Legislatures and Legislative Structures
70(29)
Introduction
70(1)
One House or Two?
71(5)
Relations Between Houses
76(2)
Sizes of Legislatures
78(1)
Political Parties in Legislatures
79(1)
Legislative Committees
80(1)
How Legislators Are Selected
81(5)
Legislative Functions
86(2)
Legislatures and Representation
88(1)
Legislative Roles
89(2)
The Legislative Process
91(1)
Legislatures and Executives
92(1)
Legislative Reform
93(1)
Notes
94(5)
CHAPTER 5 The Executive
99(25)
Introduction
99(1)
The Executive Roles
99(1)
The Presidential Executive
100(3)
The Parliamentary Executive
103(12)
Coalition Governments
115(2)
The Executive Function: Public Administration and the Bureaucracy
117(2)
Presidential and Parliamentary Systems: Some Comparisons
119(2)
Notes
121(3)
CHAPTER 6 Judiciaries and the Legal Order
124(17)
On the Comparative Study of Judiciaries
124(1)
The Idea of Law
125(2)
Legal Cultures
127(2)
Sources of Law
129(2)
Structures in Legal Systems
131(2)
Judicial Functions
133(1)
Judiciaries in the Political Arena
134(3)
Courts in Comparative Perspective
137(1)
Notes
138(3)
CHAPTER 7 Interest Groups and Political Parties
141(18)
Elections and Voting
141(1)
Pluralism and Corporatism
141(2)
Interest Groups
143(3)
Political Parties
146(3)
Electoral Systems
149(4)
Political Participation and Voting Behavior
153(1)
Groups, Parties, Elections, and Voting
154(1)
Notes
155(4)
CHAPTER 8 The Individual and the Political Environment
159(20)
The Political System Revisited
159(1)
The Study of Political Socialization and Political Attitudes
160(6)
The Study of Political Recruitment
166(3)
The Role of the Political Elite
169(1)
The Military
170(1)
Political Participation and Political Violence
171(3)
The Political Environment in Perspective
174(1)
Notes
175(4)
PART TWO Area Studies 179(186)
CHAPTER 9 The British Political System
179(27)
The British Constitution
180(3)
The British Executive
183(8)
The Civil Service
191(1)
Local Government
192(1)
The British Parliament
193(5)
Political Parties and Voting
198(4)
Summary
202(1)
Notes
203(3)
CHAPTER 10 The French Political System
206(28)
A Constitutional History of France
206(3)
The Constitutional System of the Fifth Republic
209(2)
Unitary Government in France
211(1)
Executive Structures
212(6)
The Legislature
218(3)
The Constitutional Council
221(1)
Party Politics and the Electoral Process
222(8)
Summary
230(1)
Notes
231(3)
CHAPTER 11 The German Political System
234(22)
The German Constitutional Framework
234(2)
Federalism in Germany
236(3)
Executive Structures
239(4)
The Legislative Structures
243(2)
Political Parties and the Electoral Process
245(7)
The German Political System
252(1)
Notes
253(3)
CHAPTER 12 The Japanese Political System
256(23)
The Japanese Political Heritage
256(2)
Executive Structures
258(6)
The Diet
264(3)
Political Parties and Elections
267(7)
Summary
274(1)
Notes
275(4)
CHAPTER 13 The Canadian Political System
279(23)
Introduction
279(1)
The Constitutional System
279(2)
Federalism in Canada
281(2)
French Canada and Quebec
283(3)
The Canadian Executive
286(1)
The Courts
287(1)
The Legislative Structures
288(4)
Elections and Parties
292(4)
Summary
296(1)
Notes
297(5)
CHAPTER 14 The Mexican Political System
302(23)
The Mexican Political Heritage
302(2)
Political Stability
304(1)
The Mexican Constitution
305(1)
Mexican Federalism
306(1)
The Presidency
307(2)
The Congress
309(3)
The Bureaucracy
312(1)
Political Parties and Elections
313(3)
Political Development and Economics
316(2)
Revolution and Institutionalization
318(2)
Notes
320(5)
CHAPTER 15 The Nigerian Political System
325(18)
Introduction
325(1)
Nigeria's Political History
326(6)
Federalism and National Integration
332(1)
African Political Patterns
333(3)
Political Institutions of Nigeria
336(1)
Political Parties and Political Behavior
337(2)
Conclusions: The Future of Nigerian Politics
339(1)
Notes
340(3)
CHAPTER 16 The Russian Political System
343(22)
The Country That Is Called Russia
344(6)
Ideology
350(1)
The Russian Constitution
351(2)
Structures of the Government
353(4)
The Russian Constitutional Court
357(1)
Russian Political Parties
358(1)
Political Succession, Russian Style
358(2)
The Russian System in Perspective
360(1)
Notes
360(5)
Index 365

Preface

PREFACE

I am delighted to have been called upon to prepare a third edition of this volume. It is indeed gratifying that so many students have used this book over the last five years, and I am pleased that Prentice Hall has asked for an updating and revision of the manuscript.

As the first edition of this volume was going to press, Germany was evolving from two states to one. While Germany has made remarkable progress over the last several years, many observers note that this conversion process still has much to achieve before Germany can be said to have resolved all of the problems caused by unification.

More dramatic, of course, was the devolution and the ultimate demise of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The chapter on the USSR that appeared in the first edition, while anticipating substantial changes—because Mikhail Gorbachev had already come to power, and significant changes were appearing in the Soviet Union on a regular basis—was not able to do justice to the extent of change that resulted from Gorbachev's reforms. I do not believe that anyone would have predicted at that time the degree of change that has taken place over the ensuing years. In fact, the chapter on Russia in the second edition bore very little resemblance to the chapter on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the first edition. The last three years have seen equally radical—and not always beneficial—changes in Russia, and this edition's discussion of Russia includes much coverage of the new challenges facing the Russian Federation.

This edition has continued the inclusion of area studies chapters used in the second edition, includingindividual chapters on Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Canada, Mexico, Nigeria, and Russia. While this volume continues to include more discussion of stable, Western, democratic political systems than discussion of newer nations, non-Western nations, and nondemocratic nations, a concerted effort has been made to increase such discussion here. The inclusion of area studies chapters from the African (Nigeria) and Latin American (Mexico) contexts is a demonstration of a commitment to include substantial discussion of all types of political systems; however, space limits the number of individual political systems that can receive detailed description. As was indicated in the second edition, a good deal of what has happened in Nigeria and Mexico in recent years is characteristic of other African (and Asian, and Latin American) nations, so these case studies are of some value to us and to our students in our comparative undertaking.

Once again, this volume places an emphasis on political institutions—as indicated by the title—for the same reasons as in the first and second editions: their ease of comparison, their facility of identification and classification, and the extent to which they lend themselves to analysis. This emphasis on political institutions, combined with the cross-national perspective of this volume, gives students both the tools and the perspective to undertake a meaningful cross-national introduction to the political world in which they must operate.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Once again I would like to acknowledge the assistance and encouragement of the outstanding professionals at Prentice Hall who have been associated with this undertaking. Beth Gillett began thinking about a third edition remarkably soon after the second edition appeared. Joan Stone oversaw the production process at Prentice Hall. Jan McDearmon was also extremely important in the editing process.

I also want to thank the scholars who have been contacted over the years by Prentice Hall to review the several editions of the book. These individuals have made a number of very helpful suggestions. Much of the book's improved comprehensiveness is because of their advice, which was much appreciated.

Finally, I want to once again acknowledge the role of my students in the production of this book. It was my students' comments that initially convinced me to try my hand at writing a better text, and their subsequent comments have helped me a great deal in deciding what should be included in this type of work and the best way of presenting the material.

Gregory S. Mahler

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