As composite materials gain increasing prominence in engineering applications, it becomes essential for designers and engineers to have a thorough grounding in the various material forms, their production, their benefits, and their limitations. Composite Materials: Engineering and Science helps build the groundwork needed to begin incorporating these remarkable materials-with high strength and stiffness yet low weight-into projects, and effectively exploit their advantages.
The authors, acknowledged experts in the composites community, set forth the underlying science and engineering applications of composite materials. The text discusses the different forms of reinforcement and matrix and their interaction. Although it focuses on the most widely used composites-polymer matrices and fibrous reinforcement-it also addresses metal and ceramic matrix systems. A substantial portion of the text deals with methods for calculating stiffness and strength, and the authors provide worked examples and representative data. The final chapters address the various aspects of mechanical behavior, including toughness, fatigue, impact resistance, and the properties of joints-including toughening mechanisms and repair. The book concludes with a presentation of non-destructive testing methods.
The use and development of composites for engineering purposes will undoubtedly continue to grow, in both applications and importance. Now is the time for engineering professionals to make sure they are not left behind. With its numerous examples and self-assessment questions, Composite Materials: Engineering and Science makes the ideal text for designers and engineers new to the world of composites.
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Table of Contents
Overview Introduction Definitions and Classification Natural composites More about the Matrix and Reinforcement Factors which Determine Properties The Benefits of Composites Summary Reinforcements and Reinforcement Matrix Interface Introduction Natural Fibres Introduction to Synthetic Fibres Synthetic Organic Fibres Synthetic Inorganic Fibres Particulate and Whisker Reinforcements Reinforcement Matrix Interface Summary Composites with Metallic Matrices Introduction Metal Matrix Composite Processing Interface Reactions Properties of MMCs Some Commercial MMCs Summary Ceramic Matrix Composites Introduction Processing and Structure of Monolithic Materials Processing of CMCs Detailed Review of Selected CMCs Summary Polymer Matrix Composites Introduction Polymer Matrices Processing of PMCs Some Commercial PMCs Summary Stiffness, Strength, and Related Topics Introduction Loads and Deformations Stress and Strain Stress Strain Relations Bending of Plates Isotropic Materials Principal Stress and Strain Thin-walled cylinders and Spheres Failure Criteria Summary Stiffness of Unidirectional Composites and Laminates Introduction Basic Stress Strain Relations Off-Axis Loading of a Unidirectional Composite Stiffness of Laminates The A, B, and D Matrices Using the Laminate Constitutive Equations Summary Micromechanics of Unidirectional Composites Macromechanics and Micromechanics Micromechanics Models for Stiffness Micromechanics Models for Strength Thermal and Moisture Effects Summary Strength of Unidirectional Composites and Laminates Introduction Strength of a Lamina Strength of a Laminate Additional Factors Summary Short Fibre Composites Introduction Reasons for Using Short Fibre Composites Fibre Length Fibre Orientation Stress and Strain Distribution at Fibres Critical Fibre Length and Average Fibre Stress Stiffness and Strength Summary Fracture Mechanics and Toughening Mechanisms Introduction Energy Analysis Local Stresses Other Parameters Fracture Initiation Impact Slow Crack Growth and Crack Opening Modes Toughening Mechanisms Summary Impact Resistance Introduction Impact Testing Impact Damage Residual Strength Epoxy and Thermoplastic Matrices Summary Fatigue and Environmental Effects Introduction Test Methods Unidirectional Composites Multidirectional laminated Composites Frequency Effects Edge Effects and Stress Concentrators Compressive Loading Fabric Based Composites Hybrid Composites Moisture Absorption and its Effects on Properties Other Environments Combined Fatigue and Environmental Effects Summary Joining Introduction Mechanically Fastened Joints Bonded Joints Repair Summary Non-Destructive Testing Introduction Ultrasonic Inspection Radiography Vibration Methods Thermal Methods Acoustic Emission Summary Appendix Matrices and Determinants Determinants Properties of Matrices Index