ISBN-10:
0133814742
ISBN-13:
9780133814743
Pub. Date:
01/01/2015
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Computer and Communication Networks / Edition 2

Computer and Communication Networks / Edition 2

by Nader F. Mir
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ISBN-13: 9780133814743
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 01/01/2015
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 912
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.20(h) x 2.20(d)

About the Author

Nader F. Mir , professor and former associate chair at San Jose State University’s Electrical Engineering Department, directs its off-campus graduate program for Silicon Valley companies. A senior member of IEEE, he regularly consults on patent litigation for leading companies related to communications and networking. Internationally known for his scholarly work, he has spoken at many leading conferences, published nearly one hundred refereed papers, and is currently technical editor of IEEE Communication magazine.

Read an Excerpt

This textbook represents more than a decade of work. During this time, some material became obsolete and had to be deleted. In my days as a telecommunication engineer and a university professor, much has changed in the fields of data communications and computer networks. Nonetheless, this text covers both the foundations and the latest advanced topics of computer networking.

The Internet is a revolutionary communication vehicle by which we all conveniently communicate every day and do business with one another. Because of its complexities at both hardware and software levels, the Internet is a challenge to those who want to study this field. The growing number and variety of communication services offer obvious challenges for computer network experts in designing cost-effective networks to meet the requirements of emerging communication systems. This book fills the gaps in current available texts.

Objectives

This textbook offers a mix of theory, architecture, and applications. The lack of computer communications books presenting moderate analysis with detailed drawing figures covering both wireline and wireless communication technologies led me to write this book. The main objective of this book is to help readers learn the fundamentals and certain advance concepts of computer and communication networks, using a unified set of symbols throughout a single textbook. The preparation of this book responds to the explosive demand for learning computer communication science and engineering.

This book targets two groups of people. For people in academia, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, the book provides a thorough design and performance evaluation of communication networks. The book can also give researchers the ability to analyze and simulate complex communication networks. For engineers who want to work in the communication and networking industry and need a reference covering various angles of computer networks, this book provides a variety of learning techniques: exercises, case studies, and computer simulation projects. The book makes it easy and fun for an engineer to review and learn from a reliable networking reference covering all the necessary concepts and performance models.

Organization of This Book

It would be impossible to cover all networking subjects in one textbook. The range of topics presented in this text, however, allows instructors to choose the topics best suited for their classes. Besides the explanations provided for each chapter, readers will learn how to model a communication network and how to mathematically analyze them. Readers of this text will benefit from the combination of theory and applications presented in each chapter, with the more theoretical portions of each chapter challenging those readers who are more ambitious. This book is organized into 20 chapters in two main parts as follows:

The ten chapters of Part I cover the fundamental topics in computer networking, with each chapter serving as a base for the following chapter. Part I of the book begins with an overview of networking, focusing on TCP/IP schemes, describing wireless networking, and ending with a discussion of the World Wide Web (WWW) and network security. Part I is most appropriate for readers with no experience in computer communications. The ten chapters in Part II cover detailed analytical aspects and a closer perspective of advanced networking protocols: switches, routers, multiplexers, delay and congestion analysis, multimedia networking, multicasting, data compression, voice over IP, optical networks, and sensor networks.

Chapter 1, Packet-Switched Networks, introduces computer networks, touching on the need for networks, explaining relevant packet-switched networks, and giving an overview of today's Internet. Fundamental concepts, such as messages, packets, and frames and packet switching versus circuit switching, are defined. Various types of packet-switched networks are defined, and how a message can be handled by either connection-oriented networks or connectionless networks is explained. Finally, this chapter presents a detailed analysis of packet size and optimizations.

Chapter 2, Foundation of Networking Protocols, presents the basics of the five-layer Internet Protocol reference model, as well as other protocols: the seven-layer OSI model and the equal-size packet protocol model.

Chapter 3, Networking Devices, introduces the overall architectures of networking devices, such as multiplexers, modems, and switching devices. Multiplexers are used in all layers of network. Networking modems are used for access to the Internet from remote and residential areas. Finally, switching devices, such as hubs, bridges, switches, and routers, are used to switch packets from one path to another.

Chapter 4, Data Links and Transmission, focuses on the links and transmission interfaces, the two basic components that networking starts with. This chapter presents both wired and wireless links and describes their characteristics, advantages, and channel access methods. This chapter also presents various error-detection and correction techniques at the link level and discusses the integrity of transmitted data. The chapter ends by presenting link-layer stop-and-wait and sliding-window flow control.

Chapter 5, Local Area Networks and Networks of LANs, explores the implementation of small networks, using the functional aspects of the fundamental knowledge gained in Chapters 2, 3, and Chapter 4 on basic protocols, devices, and links, respectively. The chapter provides some pointers for constructing a network with those devices and making connections, gives several examples of local area networks (LANs), and explains how such LANs are internetworked.

Chapter 6, Wireless Networks and Mobile IP, presents the basics of wireless networking. The chapter discusses challenges in designing a wireless network: management of mobility, network reliability, and frequency reuse. Next, the chapter presents an overview of wireless communication systems at all levels, from satellite to local-area networks and discusses wireless LANs and such standards as IEEE 802.11. The chapter then shifts to cellular networks, one of the main backbones of our wireless networking infrastructure. Mobile IP and Wireless mesh networks (WMNs), including WiFi and WiMAX technologies, are introduced at the end of this chapter.

Chapter 7, Routing and Internetworking, focuses on routing in wide area networks (WANs) and introduces related routing algorithms and protocols. Our networking infrastructure is clearly classified into those networks that use optimal routes and those that use nonoptimal routes. These two classes of algorithms are described in detail. Routing protocols are also classified as those that are applied within a domain and those that are applied beyond a domain. This chapter also presents congestion-control algorithms: network-congestion control and link-flow control. The chapter also looks at random early detection for congestion control and describes a useful technique to estimate the link-blocking probability.

Chapter 8, Transport and End-to-End Protocols, first looks at the basics of the transport layer and demonstrates how a simple file is transferred. This layer handles the details of data transmission. Several techniques for transmission control and protocol (TCP) congestion control are discussed. Next, congestion-avoidance methods, which are methods of using precautionary algorithms to avoid a possible congestion in a TCP session, are presented. The chapter ends with a discussion of methods of ATM congestion control. Chapter 9, Applications and Network Management, presents the fundamentals of the application layer, which determines how a specific user application should use a network. Among the applications are the Domain Name System (DNS); e-mail protocols, such as SMTP, and the World Wide Web (WWW).

Chapter 10, Network Security, focuses on security aspects of networks. After introducing network threats, hackers, and attacks, this chapter discusses encryption techniques: public-and private-key protocols, encryption standards, key-exchange algorithms, authentication methods, digital signature and secure connections, firewalls, IPsec, and security methods for virtual private networks.

Chapter 11, Packet Queues and Delay Analysis, begins Part II, discussing Little's theorem, Markov chain theorem, and birth and death processes. Queueing-node models are presented with several scenarios: finite versus infinite queueing capacity, one server versus several servers, and Markovian versus non-Markovian systems. Non-Markovian models are essential for many network applications, as multimedia traffic cannot be modeled by Markovian patterns. In addition, delay analysis, based on networks of queues, is discussed. Burke's theorem is applied in both serial and parallel queueing nodes. Jackson's theorem is presented for situations in which a packet visits a particular queue more than once, resulting in loops or feedback.

Chapter 12, Quality of Service and Resource Allocation, covers quality-of-service issues in networking. The two broad categories of QoS discussed are the integrated services approach, for providing service quality to networks that require maintaining certain features in switching nodes; and the differentiated services approach (DiffServ), which is based on providing quality-of-service support to a broad class of applications. These two categories include a number of QoS protocols and architectures, such as traffic shaping, admission control, packet scheduling, reservation methods, the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), and traffic conditioner and bandwidth broker methods. This chapter also explains fundamentals of resource allocation in data networks.

Chapter 13, Networks in Switch Fabrics, looks inside switch fabrics of such Internet devices as routers. The chapter begins by classifying characteristics of switching networks and presenting features and basic definitions of switch fabrics. As the building blocks of switching fabrics, crossbar switches are emphasized. In particular, a case study at the end of chapter combines a number of buffered crosspoints to form a buffered crossbar. A number of other switch architectures—both blocking and nonblocking, as well as shared-memory, concentration-based, and expansion-based switching networks are presented.

Chapter 14, Optical Networks and WDM Systems, presents principles of fiber-optic communications and networking. The optical communication technology uses principles of light emission in the glass medium, which can carry more information over longer distances than electrical signals can carry in a copper or coaxial medium. The discussion on optical networks starts with basic optical devices, such as optical filters, wavelength-division multiplexers (WDMs), optical switches, and optical buffers and optical delay lines. After detailing optical networks using routing devices, the chapter discusses wavelength reuse and allocation as a link in all-optical networks. The chapter ends with a case study on an optical switching network, presenting a new topology: the spherical switching network (SSN).

Chapter 15, Multicasting Techniques and Protocols, covers the multicast extension of routing protocols in the Internet. First, the chapter defines basic terms and algorithms: multicast group, multicast addresses, and multicast tree algorithms, which form the next set of foundations for understanding packet multicast in the Internet. Two main classes of protocols are discussed: intradomain multicast routing protocols, by which packets are multicast within a domain; and interdomain routing protocol, by which packet multicast among domains is managed. In addition, techniques and algorithms used within the hardware of routers are introduced.

Chapter 16, VPNs, Tunneling, and Overlay Networks, introduces some useful Internet applications. The chapter explains how networks can be overlaidor tunneled and describes virtual private networks (VPNs), by which a private-sector entity tunnels over the public networking infrastructure, maintaining private connections. Other, related topics in this chapter are multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) networks and overlay networks.

Chapter 17, Compression of Digital Voice and Video, focuses on data-compression techniques for voice and video to prepare digital voice and video for multimedia networking. The chapter starts with the analysis of information-source fundamentals, source coding, and limits of data compression and explains all the steps of the conversion from raw voice to compressed binary form, such as sampling, quantization, and encoding. The chapter also summarizes the limits of compression and explains typical processes of still-image and video-compression techniques, such as JPEG, MPEG, and MP3. An end-of-chapter case study covers most of the chapter content, looking at FAX compression.

Chapter 18, VoIP and Multimedia Networking, presents the transportation of real-time signals along with the signaling protocols used in voice over IP (VoIP) telephony and multimedia networking. The chapter presents protocols designed to provide real-time service requirements to the Internet. After discussing the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and the H.323 series of protocols, which are responsible for session signaling and numbering, real-time transport protocols, such as Real-Time Transport protocol (RTP) and the Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP) are presented. The next topic is streaming video in a single server, using content distribution networks (CDNs). Also discussed is the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), which provides a general-purpose transport protocol for transporting stream traffic. The chapter ends with detailed streaming source modeling and analysis.

Chapter 19, Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, presents a special type of wireless networks, known as the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). Ad-hoc networks do not need any fixed infrastructure to operate and support dynamic topology scenarios where no wired infrastructure exists. The chapter explains how a mobile user can act as a routing node and how a packet is routed from a source to its destination without having any static router in the network. The chapter also discusses table-driven routing protocols such as DSDV, CGSR, and WRP, and also source-initiated routing protocols, as well as DSR, ABR, TORA, and AODV. At the end of the chapter, we will disscuss the security of ad-hoc networks.

Chapter 20, Wireless Sensor Networks, presents an overview of such sensor networks and describes intelligent sensor nodes, as well as an overview of a protocol stack for sensor networks. The chapter explains how the "power" factor distinguishes the routing protocols of sensor networks from those of computer networks and describes clustering protocols in sensor networks. These protocols specify the topology of the hierarchical network partitioned into nonoverlapping clusters of sensor nodes. The chapter also presents a typical routing protocol for sensor networks, leading to a detailed numerical case study on the implementation of a clustering protocol. This chapter ends with ZigBee technology, based on IEEE standard 802.15.4. This technology uses low-power nodes and is a well-known low-power standard.

Exercises and Computer Simulation Projects

A number of exercises are given at the end of each chapter. The exercises normally challenge readers to find the directions to solutions in that chapter. The answers to the exercises are not always simple and may be more elusive, but this is typical of real and applied problems in networking. These problems encourage the reader to go back through the text and pick out what the instructor believes is significant. Besides typical exercises problems, there are numerous occasions for those who wish to incorporate projects into their courses. The computer simulation projects are normally meant to be a programming miniproject. Projects listed in the exercises range from simulations to partial hardware design.

Throughout the text are case studies that show how and where computer communication integration is used with the materials studied in the associated chapter. A case study is basically a practical example for better understanding the essence of the corresponding chapter.

Appendixes

The book's appendixes make it essentially self-sufficient. Appendix A, Glossary of Acronyms, defines acronyms. Appendix B, RFCs, encourages readers to delve more deeply into each and every protocol presented in the book by consulting the many references provided. Appendix C, Probabilities and Stochastic Processes, reviews probabilities, random variables, and random processes.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii

About the Author xxxvii

Part I: Fundamental Concepts 1

Chapter 1: Packet-Switched Networks 3

1.1 Basic Definitions in Networks 4

1.2 Types of Packet-Switched Networks 11

1.3 Packet Size and Optimizations 15

1.4 Foundation of Networking Protocols 17

1.5 Addressing Scheme in the Internet 21

1.6 Equal-Sized Packets Model 28

1.7 Summary 28

1.8 Exercises 29

1.9 Computer Simulation Project 34

Chapter 2: Overview of Networking Devices 37

2.1 Network Interface Cards (NICs) 39

2.2 Switching and Routing Devices 40

2.3 Wireless Switching and Routing Devices 47

2.4 Modems 50

2.5 Multiplexers 58

2.6 Summary 66

2.7 Exercises 67

2.8 Computer Simulation Project 69

Chapter 3: Data Links and Link Interfaces 71

3.1 Data Links 72

3.2 Link Encoder 75

3.3 Error Detection and Correction on Links 77

3.4 Flow Control on Links 85

3.5 Link Access by Multiple Users 92

3.6 Wireless Channel Access by Multiple Users 97

3.7 Link Aggregation 107

3.8 Summary 109

3.9 Exercises 110

3.10 Computer Simulation Project 114

Chapter 4: Local Area Networks and Networks of LANs 115

4.1 LANs and Basic Topologies 116

4.2 LAN Protocols 117

4.3 Networks of LANs 121

4.4 MAC/IP Address Conversion Protocols 130

4.5 Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) 133

4.6 Virtual LANs (VLANs) 136

4.7 Wireless LANs 139

4.8 IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standard 142

4.9 Case Study: DOCSIS, a Cable TV Protocol 151

4.10 Summary 152

4.11 Exercises 153

4.12 Computer Simulation Project 157

Chapter 5: Wide-Area Routing and Internetworking 159

5.1 IP Packets and Basic Routing Policies 160

5.2 Path Selection Algorithms 173

5.3 Intradomain Routing Protocols 178

5.4 Interdomain Routing Protocols 188

5.5 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 196

5.6 Congestion Control at the Network Layer 199

5.7 Summary 207

5.8 Exercises 209

5.9 Computer Simulation Project 213

Chapter 6: Multicast Routing and Protocols 215

6.1 Basic Definitions and Techniques 216

6.2 Local and Membership Multicast Protocols 221

6.3 Intradomain Multicast Protocols 223

6.4 Interdomain Multicast Protocols 231

6.5 Summary 237

6.6 Exercises 238

6.7 Computer Simulation Project 241

Chapter 7: Wireless Wide Area Networks and LTE Technology 243

7.1 Infrastructure of Wireless Networks 244

7.2 Cellular Networks 246

7.3 Mobile IP Management in Cellular Networks 259

7.4 Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Technology 268

7.5 Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) with LTE 277

7.6 Characterization of Wireless Channels 280

7.7 Summary 285

7.8 Exercises 286

7.9 Computer Simulation Project 288

Chapter 8: Transport and End-to-End Protocols 289

8.1 Overview of the Transport Layer 290

8.2 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 295

8.3 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 298

8.4 Mobile Transport Protocols 307

8.5 TCP Congestion Control 309

8.6 Summary 315

8.7 Exercises 316

8.8 Computer Simulation Project 319

Chapter 9: Basic Network Applications and Management 321

9.1 Overview of the Application Layer 322

9.2 Domain Name System (DNS) 325

9.3 Electronic Mail (E-Mail) 330

9.4 World Wide Web (WWW) 335

9.5 Remote Login Protocols 342

9.6 File Transfer and FTP 346

9.7 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networking 347

9.8 Network Management 356

9.9 Summary 362

9.10 Exercises 363

9.11 Computer Simulation Projects 366

Chapter 10: Network Security 369

10.1 Overview of Network Security 370

10.2 Security Methods 375

10.3 Symmetric-Key Cryptography 377

10.4 Public-Key Cryptography 380

10.5 Authentication 383

10.6 Digital Signatures 387

10.7 Security of IP and Wireless Networks 387

10.8 Firewalls and Packet Filtering 391

10.9 Summary 396

10.10 Exercises 397

10.11 Computer Simulation Project 399

Part II: Advanced Concepts 401

Chapter 11: Network Queues and Delay Analysis 403

11.1 Little’s Theorem 404

11.2 Birth-and-Death Process 406

11.3 Queueing Disciplines 408

11.4 Markovian FIFO Queueing Systems 409

11.5 Non-Markovian and Self-Similar Models 424

11.6 Networks of Queues 428

11.7 Summary 437

11.8 Exercises 438

11.9 Computer Simulation Project 444

Chapter 12: Advanced Router and Switch Architectures 445

12.1 Overview of Router Architecture 446

12.2 Input Port Processor (IPP) 447

12.3 Output Port Processor (OPP) 453

12.4 Central Controller 454

12.5 Switch Fabric 457

12.6 Multicasting Packets in Routers 475

12.7 Summary 480

12.8 Exercises 481

12.9 Computer Simulation Project 484

Chapter 13: Quality of Service and Scheduling in Routers 485

13.1 Overview of Quality of Service (QoS) 486

13.2 Integrated Services QoS 486

13.3 Differentiated Services QoS 495

13.4 Resource Allocation 497

13.5 Packet Scheduling 501

13.6 Summary 512

13.7 Exercises 513

13.8 Computer Simulation Project 517

Chapter 14: Tunneling, VPNs, and MPLS Networks 519

14.1 Tunneling 520

14.2 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) 524

14.3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 528

14.4 Summary 540

14.5 Exercises 540

14.6 Computer Simulation Project 543

Chapter 15: All-Optical Networks, WDM, and GMPLS 545

15.1 Overview of Optical Networks 546

15.2 Basic Optical Networking Devices 553

15.3 Large-Scale Optical Switches 558

15.4 Structure of Optical Cross Connects (OXCs) 560

15.5 Routing in All-Optical Networks 563

15.6 Wavelength Allocation in Networks 567

15.7 Case Study: An All-Optical Switch 569

15.8 Summary 572

15.9 Exercises 573

15.10 Computer Simulation Project 575

Chapter 16: Cloud Computing and Network Virtualization 577

16.1 Cloud Computing and Data Centers 578

16.2 Data Center Networks (DCNs) 588

16.3 Network Virtualization 595

16.3.1 Network Virtualization Components 596

16.4 Overlay Networks 600

16.5 Summary 601

16.6 Exercises 602

16.7 Computer Simulation Projects 605

Chapter 17: Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Beyond 607

17.1 Software-Defined Networking (SDN) 608

17.2 SDN-Based Network Model 613

17.3 Small-Size SDN Architectures 620

17.4 SDN Architectures for Clouds 621

17.5 Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) 623

17.6 Information-Centric Networking (ICN) 627

17.7 Network Emulators for Advanced Networks 632

17.8 Summary 635

17.9 Exercises 636

17.10 Computer Simulation Projects 638

Chapter 18: Voice over IP (VoIP) Signaling 641

18.1 Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) 642

18.2 Overview of Voice over IP (VoIP) 649

18.3 H.323 Protocol 652

18.4 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 666

18.5 Softswitch Methods and MGCP 678

18.6 VoIP and Multimedia Internetworking 679

18.7 Summary 684

18.8 Exercises 685

18.9 Computer Simulation Projects 689

Chapter 19: Media Exchange and Voice/Video Compression 693

19.1 Overview of Data Compression 694

19.2 Digital Voice and Compression 695

19.3 Still Images and JPEG Compression 701

19.4 Moving Images and MPEG Compression 707

19.5 Compression Methods with Loss 709

19.6 Compression Methods without Loss 713

19.7 Scanned Document Compression 717

19.8 Summary 718

19.9 Exercises 719

19.10 Computer Simulation Project 724

Chapter 20: Distributed and Cloud-Based Multimedia Networking 725

20.1 Real-Time Media Exchange Protocols 726

20.2 Distributed Multimedia Networking 741

20.3 Cloud-Based Multimedia Networking 751

20.4 Self-Similarity and Non-Markovian Streaming 756

20.5 Summary 759

20.6 Exercises 761

20.7 Computer Simulation Project 764

Chapter 21: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks 765

21.1 Overview of Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks 766

21.2 Routing in Ad-Hoc Networks 767

21.3 Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Networks 769

21.4 Security of Ad-Hoc Networks 783

21.5 Summary 785

21.6 Exercises 786

21.7 Computer Simulation Projects 787

Chapter 22: Wireless Sensor Networks 789

22.1 Sensor Networks and Protocol Structures 790

22.2 Communication Energy Model 794

22.3 Clustering Protocols 799

22.4 Routing Protocols 805

22.5 Other Related Technologies 811

22.6 Case Study: Simulation of a Sensor Network 812

22.7 Summary 814

22.8 Exercises 815

22.9 Computer Simulation Projects 815

Appendix A: Glossary of Acronyms 817

Appendix B: RFCs 823

Appendix C: Probabilities and Stochastic Processes 827

C.1 Probability Theory 827

C.2 Random Variables 828

C.3 Multiple Random Variables 832

C.4 Stochastic (Random) Processes 834

C.5 Theory of Markov Chains 835

C.5.1 Continuous-Time Markov Chains 835

Appendix D: Erlang-B Blocking Probability Table 837

Index 841

Preface

This textbook represents more than a decade of work. During this time, some material became obsolete and had to be deleted. In my days as a telecommunication engineer and a university professor, much has changed in the fields of data communications and computer networks. Nonetheless, this text covers both the foundations and the latest advanced topics of computer networking.

The Internet is a revolutionary communication vehicle by which we all conveniently communicate every day and do business with one another. Because of its complexities at both hardware and software levels, the Internet is a challenge to those who want to study this field. The growing number and variety of communication services offer obvious challenges for computer network experts in designing cost-effective networks to meet the requirements of emerging communication systems. This book fills the gaps in current available texts.

Objectives

This textbook offers a mix of theory, architecture, and applications. The lack of computer communications books presenting moderate analysis with detailed drawing figures covering both wireline and wireless communication technologies led me to write this book. The main objective of this book is to help readers learn the fundamentals and certain advance concepts of computer and communication networks, using a unified set of symbols throughout a single textbook. The preparation of this book responds to the explosive demand for learning computer communication science and engineering.

This book targets two groups of people. For people in academia, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, the book provides a thorough design and performance evaluationof communication networks. The book can also give researchers the ability to analyze and simulate complex communication networks. For engineers who want to work in the communication and networking industry and need a reference covering various angles of computer networks, this book provides a variety of learning techniques: exercises, case studies, and computer simulation projects. The book makes it easy and fun for an engineer to review and learn from a reliable networking reference covering all the necessary concepts and performance models.

Organization of This Book

It would be impossible to cover all networking subjects in one textbook. The range of topics presented in this text, however, allows instructors to choose the topics best suited for their classes. Besides the explanations provided for each chapter, readers will learn how to model a communication network and how to mathematically analyze them. Readers of this text will benefit from the combination of theory and applications presented in each chapter, with the more theoretical portions of each chapter challenging those readers who are more ambitious. This book is organized into 20 chapters in two main parts as follows:

The ten chapters of Part I cover the fundamental topics in computer networking, with each chapter serving as a base for the following chapter. Part I of the book begins with an overview of networking, focusing on TCP/IP schemes, describing wireless networking, and ending with a discussion of the World Wide Web (WWW) and network security. Part I is most appropriate for readers with no experience in computer communications. The ten chapters in Part II cover detailed analytical aspects and a closer perspective of advanced networking protocols: switches, routers, multiplexers, delay and congestion analysis, multimedia networking, multicasting, data compression, voice over IP, optical networks, and sensor networks.

Chapter 1, Packet-Switched Networks, introduces computer networks, touching on the need for networks, explaining relevant packet-switched networks, and giving an overview of today's Internet. Fundamental concepts, such as messages, packets, and frames and packet switching versus circuit switching, are defined. Various types of packet-switched networks are defined, and how a message can be handled by either connection-oriented networks or connectionless networks is explained. Finally, this chapter presents a detailed analysis of packet size and optimizations.

Chapter 2, Foundation of Networking Protocols, presents the basics of the five-layer Internet Protocol reference model, as well as other protocols: the seven-layer OSI model and the equal-size packet protocol model.

Chapter 3, Networking Devices, introduces the overall architectures of networking devices, such as multiplexers, modems, and switching devices. Multiplexers are used in all layers of network. Networking modems are used for access to the Internet from remote and residential areas. Finally, switching devices, such as hubs, bridges, switches, and routers, are used to switch packets from one path to another.

Chapter 4, Data Links and Transmission, focuses on the links and transmission interfaces, the two basic components that networking starts with. This chapter presents both wired and wireless links and describes their characteristics, advantages, and channel access methods. This chapter also presents various error-detection and correction techniques at the link level and discusses the integrity of transmitted data. The chapter ends by presenting link-layer stop-and-wait and sliding-window flow control.

Chapter 5, Local Area Networks and Networks of LANs, explores the implementation of small networks, using the functional aspects of the fundamental knowledge gained in Chapters 2, 3, and Chapter 4 on basic protocols, devices, and links, respectively. The chapter provides some pointers for constructing a network with those devices and making connections, gives several examples of local area networks (LANs), and explains how such LANs are internetworked.

Chapter 6, Wireless Networks and Mobile IP, presents the basics of wireless networking. The chapter discusses challenges in designing a wireless network: management of mobility, network reliability, and frequency reuse. Next, the chapter presents an overview of wireless communication systems at all levels, from satellite to local-area networks and discusses wireless LANs and such standards as IEEE 802.11. The chapter then shifts to cellular networks, one of the main backbones of our wireless networking infrastructure. Mobile IP and Wireless mesh networks (WMNs), including WiFi and WiMAX technologies, are introduced at the end of this chapter.

Chapter 7, Routing and Internetworking, focuses on routing in wide area networks (WANs) and introduces related routing algorithms and protocols. Our networking infrastructure is clearly classified into those networks that use optimal routes and those that use nonoptimal routes. These two classes of algorithms are described in detail. Routing protocols are also classified as those that are applied within a domain and those that are applied beyond a domain. This chapter also presents congestion-control algorithms: network-congestion control and link-flow control. The chapter also looks at random early detection for congestion control and describes a useful technique to estimate the link-blocking probability.

Chapter 8, Transport and End-to-End Protocols, first looks at the basics of the transport layer and demonstrates how a simple file is transferred. This layer handles the details of data transmission. Several techniques for transmission control and protocol (TCP) congestion control are discussed. Next, congestion-avoidance methods, which are methods of using precautionary algorithms to avoid a possible congestion in a TCP session, are presented. The chapter ends with a discussion of methods of ATM congestion control. Chapter 9, Applications and Network Management, presents the fundamentals of the application layer, which determines how a specific user application should use a network. Among the applications are the Domain Name System (DNS); e-mail protocols, such as SMTP, and the World Wide Web (WWW).

Chapter 10, Network Security, focuses on security aspects of networks. After introducing network threats, hackers, and attacks, this chapter discusses encryption techniques: public-and private-key protocols, encryption standards, key-exchange algorithms, authentication methods, digital signature and secure connections, firewalls, IPsec, and security methods for virtual private networks.

Chapter 11, Packet Queues and Delay Analysis, begins Part II, discussing Little's theorem, Markov chain theorem, and birth and death processes. Queueing-node models are presented with several scenarios: finite versus infinite queueing capacity, one server versus several servers, and Markovian versus non-Markovian systems. Non-Markovian models are essential for many network applications, as multimedia traffic cannot be modeled by Markovian patterns. In addition, delay analysis, based on networks of queues, is discussed. Burke's theorem is applied in both serial and parallel queueing nodes. Jackson's theorem is presented for situations in which a packet visits a particular queue more than once, resulting in loops or feedback.

Chapter 12, Quality of Service and Resource Allocation, covers quality-of-service issues in networking. The two broad categories of QoS discussed are the integrated services approach, for providing service quality to networks that require maintaining certain features in switching nodes; and the differentiated services approach (DiffServ), which is based on providing quality-of-service support to a broad class of applications. These two categories include a number of QoS protocols and architectures, such as traffic shaping, admission control, packet scheduling, reservation methods, the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), and traffic conditioner and bandwidth broker methods. This chapter also explains fundamentals of resource allocation in data networks.

Chapter 13, Networks in Switch Fabrics, looks inside switch fabrics of such Internet devices as routers. The chapter begins by classifying characteristics of switching networks and presenting features and basic definitions of switch fabrics. As the building blocks of switching fabrics, crossbar switches are emphasized. In particular, a case study at the end of chapter combines a number of buffered crosspoints to form a buffered crossbar. A number of other switch architectures—both blocking and nonblocking, as well as shared-memory, concentration-based, and expansion-based switching networks are presented.

Chapter 14, Optical Networks and WDM Systems, presents principles of fiber-optic communications and networking. The optical communication technology uses principles of light emission in the glass medium, which can carry more information over longer distances than electrical signals can carry in a copper or coaxial medium. The discussion on optical networks starts with basic optical devices, such as optical filters, wavelength-division multiplexers (WDMs), optical switches, and optical buffers and optical delay lines. After detailing optical networks using routing devices, the chapter discusses wavelength reuse and allocation as a link in all-optical networks. The chapter ends with a case study on an optical switching network, presenting a new topology: the spherical switching network (SSN).

Chapter 15, Multicasting Techniques and Protocols, covers the multicast extension of routing protocols in the Internet. First, the chapter defines basic terms and algorithms: multicast group, multicast addresses, and multicast tree algorithms, which form the next set of foundations for understanding packet multicast in the Internet. Two main classes of protocols are discussed: intradomain multicast routing protocols, by which packets are multicast within a domain; and interdomain routing protocol, by which packet multicast among domains is managed. In addition, techniques and algorithms used within the hardware of routers are introduced.

Chapter 16, VPNs, Tunneling, and Overlay Networks, introduces some useful Internet applications. The chapter explains how networks can be overlaidor tunneled and describes virtual private networks (VPNs), by which a private-sector entity tunnels over the public networking infrastructure, maintaining private connections. Other, related topics in this chapter are multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) networks and overlay networks.

Chapter 17, Compression of Digital Voice and Video, focuses on data-compression techniques for voice and video to prepare digital voice and video for multimedia networking. The chapter starts with the analysis of information-source fundamentals, source coding, and limits of data compression and explains all the steps of the conversion from raw voice to compressed binary form, such as sampling, quantization, and encoding. The chapter also summarizes the limits of compression and explains typical processes of still-image and video-compression techniques, such as JPEG, MPEG, and MP3. An end-of-chapter case study covers most of the chapter content, looking at FAX compression.

Chapter 18, VoIP and Multimedia Networking, presents the transportation of real-time signals along with the signaling protocols used in voice over IP (VoIP) telephony and multimedia networking. The chapter presents protocols designed to provide real-time service requirements to the Internet. After discussing the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and the H.323 series of protocols, which are responsible for session signaling and numbering, real-time transport protocols, such as Real-Time Transport protocol (RTP) and the Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP) are presented. The next topic is streaming video in a single server, using content distribution networks (CDNs). Also discussed is the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), which provides a general-purpose transport protocol for transporting stream traffic. The chapter ends with detailed streaming source modeling and analysis.

Chapter 19, Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, presents a special type of wireless networks, known as the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). Ad-hoc networks do not need any fixed infrastructure to operate and support dynamic topology scenarios where no wired infrastructure exists. The chapter explains how a mobile user can act as a routing node and how a packet is routed from a source to its destination without having any static router in the network. The chapter also discusses table-driven routing protocols such as DSDV, CGSR, and WRP, and also source-initiated routing protocols, as well as DSR, ABR, TORA, and AODV. At the end of the chapter, we will disscuss the security of ad-hoc networks.

Chapter 20, Wireless Sensor Networks, presents an overview of such sensor networks and describes intelligent sensor nodes, as well as an overview of a protocol stack for sensor networks. The chapter explains how the "power" factor distinguishes the routing protocols of sensor networks from those of computer networks and describes clustering protocols in sensor networks. These protocols specify the topology of the hierarchical network partitioned into nonoverlapping clusters of sensor nodes. The chapter also presents a typical routing protocol for sensor networks, leading to a detailed numerical case study on the implementation of a clustering protocol. This chapter ends with ZigBee technology, based on IEEE standard 802.15.4. This technology uses low-power nodes and is a well-known low-power standard.

Exercises and Computer Simulation Projects

A number of exercises are given at the end of each chapter. The exercises normally challenge readers to find the directions to solutions in that chapter. The answers to the exercises are not always simple and may be more elusive, but this is typical of real and applied problems in networking. These problems encourage the reader to go back through the text and pick out what the instructor believes is significant. Besides typical exercises problems, there are numerous occasions for those who wish to incorporate projects into their courses. The computer simulation projects are normally meant to be a programming miniproject. Projects listed in the exercises range from simulations to partial hardware design.

Throughout the text are case studies that show how and where computer communication integration is used with the materials studied in the associated chapter. A case study is basically a practical example for better understanding the essence of the corresponding chapter.

Appendixes

The book's appendixes make it essentially self-sufficient. Appendix A, Glossary of Acronyms, defines acronyms. Appendix B, RFCs, encourages readers to delve more deeply into each and every protocol presented in the book by consulting the many references provided. Appendix C, Probabilities and Stochastic Processes, reviews probabilities, random variables, and random processes.

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Computer and Communication Networks 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
The book is an awesome book in networking, the book is divided into fundamental part and advanced part. Unlike any other networking book there are numerous drawing figures which are helpful. almost a figure per page or two throughout. One other great thing about this book is that the author has summarized difficult protocols into a few steps, so you this when is needed in each chapter. The write-up is great and right to the point, no wordiness.