Human-Computer Interaction is a multidisciplinary field focused on human aspects of the development of computer technology. As computer-based technology becomes increasingly pervasive - not just in developed countries, but worldwide - the need to take a human-centered approach in the design and development of this technology becomes ever more important. For roughly 30 years now, researchers and practitioners in computational and behavioral sciences have worked to identify theory and practice that influences the direction of these technologies, and this diverse work makes up the field of human-computer interaction. Broadly speaking it includes the study of what technology might be able to do for people and how people might interact with the technology.
Computers in the Human Interaction Loop (CHIL) explores a new look at human interfaces, where computers become participants among humans interacting with humans, as opposed to a rigid human-machine interaction dialog. To do so, computers must become perceptually aware and learn to provide services proactively and unobtrusively based on an implicit understanding of human needs.
The book integrates a wide range of research topics that represent key elements of this vision including audio-visual perceptual components for such environments; the design, implementation and analysis of novel proactive perceptive services supporting humans; the development of software architectures, ontologies and tools necessary for building such environments and services, as well as approaches for the evaluation of such technologies and services.
Divided into five parts: Introduction, Perceptual Technologies, Services, Software Infrastructure,and an Outlook Beyond, the book is based on research carried out by the CHIL Consortium (Computers in the Human Interaction Loop). Based on the premise that machines need to understand the human context and human activities better, the focus is on how machines need to recognize, understand, adapt to and learn from human interests, activities, goals and aspirations, rather than humans having to adapt to machines.
Those working in areas such as ambient intelligence, perceptual user interfaces, human-centred computing systems, and other areas of pervasive computing will find this a very valuable reference source.
Table of Contents
Part I The CHIL Vision and Framework
1 Computers in the Human Interaction Loop Alex Waibel Hartwig Steusloff Rainer Stiefelhagen Kym Watson 3
Part II Perceptual Technologies
2 Perceptual Technologies: Analyzing the Who, What, Where of Human Interaction Rainer Stiefelhagen 9
3 Person Tracking Keni Bernardin Rainer Stiefelhagen Aristodemos Pnevmatikakis Oswald Lanz Alessio Brutti Josep R. Casas Gerasimos Potamianos 11
4 Multimodal Person Identification Aristodemos Pnevmatikakis Hazim K. Ekenel Claude Barras Javier Hernando 23
5 Estimation of Head Pose Michael Voit Nicolas Gourier Cristian Canton-Ferrer Oswald Lanz Rainer Stiefelhagen Roberto Brunelli 33
6 Automatic Speech Recognition Gerasimos Potamianos Lori Lamel Matthias Wolfel Jing Huang Etienne Marcheret Claude Barras Xuan Zhu John McDonough Javier Hernando Dusan Macho Climent Nadeu 43
7 Acoustic Event Detection and Classification Andrey Temko Climent Nadeu Dusan Macho Robert Malkin Christian Zieger Maurizio Omologo 61
8 Language Technologies: Question Answering in Speech Transcripts Jordi Turmo Mihai Surdeanu Olivier Galibert Sophie Rosset 75
9 Extracting Interaction Cues: Focus of Attention, Body Pose, and Gestures Oswald Lanz Roberto Brunelli Paul Chippendale Michael Voit Rainer Stiefelhagen 87
10 Emotion Recognition Daniel Neiberg Kjell Elenius Susanne Burger 95
11 Activity Classification Kai Nickel Montse Pardas Rainer Stiefelhagen Cristian Canton Jose Luis Landabaso Josep R. Casas 107
12 Situation Modeling Oliver Brdiczka James L. Crowley Jan Curin Jan Kleindienst 121
13 Targeted Audio Dirk Olszewski 133
14 Multimodal Interaction Control Jonas Beskow Rolf Carlson Jens Edlund BjornGranstrom Mattias Heldner Anna Hjalmarsson Gabriel Skantze 143
15 Perceptual Component Evaluation and Data Collection Nicolas Moreau Djamel Mostefa Khalid Choukri Rainer Stiefelhagen Susanne Burger 159
Part III Services
16 User-Centered Design of CHIL Services: Introduction Fabio Pianesi and Jacques Terken 179
17 The Collaborative Workspace: A Co-located Tabletop Device to Support Meetings Chiara Leonardi Fabio Pianesi Daniel Tomasini Massimo Zancanaro 187
18 The Memory Jog Service Nikolaos Dimakis John Soldatos Lazaros Polymenakos Janienke Sturm Joachim Neumann Josep R. Casas 207
19 The Connector Service: Representing Availability for Mobile Communication Maria Danninger Erica Robles Abhay Sukumaran Clifford Nass 235
20 Relational Cockpit Janienke Sturm Jacques Terken 257
21 Automatic Relational Reporting to Support Group Dynamics Fabio Pianesi Massimo Zancanaro Alessandro Cappelletti Bruno Lepri Elena Not 271
Part IV The CHIL Reference Architecture
22 Introduction Nikolaos Dimakis John Soldatos Lazaros Polymenakos 285
23 The CHIL Reference Model Architecture for Multimodal Perceptual Systems Gerhard Sutschet 291
24 Low-Level Distributed Data Transfer Layer: The ChilFlow Middleware Ga;bor Szeder 297
25 Perceptual Component Data Models and APIs Nikolaos Dimakis John Soldatos Lazaros Polymenakos Jan Curin Jan Kleindienst 307
26 Situation Modeling Layer Jan Kleindienst Jan Curin Oliver Brdiczka Nikolaos Dimakis 315
27 Ontological Modeling and Reasoning Alexander Paar Jurgen Reuter 325
28 Building Scalable Services: The CHIL Agent Framework Axel Burkle Nikolaos Dimakis Ruth Karl Wilmuth Muller Uwe Pfirrmann Manfred Schenk Gerhard Sutschet 341
29 CHIL Integration Tools and Middleware Jan Curin Jan Kleindienst Pascal Fleury 353
Part V Beyond CHIL
30 Beyond CHIL Alex Waibel 367