Computers in the Workplace

Computers in the Workplace

by Facts on File
Pub. Date:
Facts on File, Incorporated


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Computers in the Workplace

Computers, Internet, and Society is a six-volume set that examines the field of computer technology and how its extraordinary developments has affected the ways in which the global environment communicates and interacts. The paradox of today's computer technology is that it is both ubiquitous and invisible. The books in this set, designed to complement science curricula, make this technology "visible," so that it can be examined and provide students with the ability to think critically and responsibly about the role it plays in their daily lives.

Professions as wide-ranging as law, accounting, medicine, and administration have witnessed the transformation of their respective workplaces in countless ways with the advent of computers. In fact, many traditional work-places have become nonexistent, as the Internet allows many to shift their offices to their homes. Computers in the Workplace describes the changes brought on by computers, detailing the ways in which workplaces in various industries have been affected and the new skills that employees must now acquire as a result of ever-evolving technology. The book also includes information on robotic computers, particularly in automobile manufacturing, and how such technology has led to a decreased need for human workers.

The volume also includes information on

assembly lines

computer programmers


electronic medical records

Java programming language

legal research, offline versus online

project management

work processors

The book contains more than 30 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and and Index. Computers, Internet, and Society is essential for high schools students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the present and future impact of computer technology on the world around them.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816077588
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 06/01/2011
Series: Computers, Internet, and Society Series
Pages: 172
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.40(h) x 0.60(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xiii

Introduction xv

1 Scientific Management: The Systematization of Work 1

Division of Labor 1

Taylorism 5

The Assembly Line 7

Scientific Management if the Military 9

Criticisms of Scientific Management 9

Computers and Scientific Management Today 10

Frederick Winslow Taylor, Founder of Scientific Management 11

Conclusions 14

2 Manufacturing: From Line Workers to Robots 16

Robots 16

Automobile Manufacturing 18

Automatic Process Control 20

Quality Assurance 22

Integrated Circuit Fabrication 23

Three-Dimensional Printing 24

Mass Customization 26

John Henry, Mythical Worker Defeated by a Steam-Powered Hammer 29

Conclusions 31

3 Administrative Assistants: From Typist to Office Manager 33

Administrative Assistants before Computers 33

Word Processors 37

Document Management Systems 40

Automatic Speech Recognition 42

The Rise and Fall of Shorthand 44

Document Assembly 47

Meeting Scheduling 49

Travel Planning 50

Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane, Authors of The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market 51

Conclusions 54

4 Managers: Business Information at Your Fingertips 55

Budgeting and Accounting 55

Project Management 57

Supply Chain Management 59

The Paperless Office 60

Marketing and Sales 64

Customer Relationship Management 66

Human Resources 68

William Henry Leffingwell, Early Proponent of Applying Scientific Management to Office Workers 68

Conclusions 70

5 Computer Programmers: Creating Software for Creating Software 73

Hardwiring Early Software 74

Compliers 75

Java: Write Once, Run Anywhere 79

Object-Oriented Programming 80

Integrated Development Environments 82

Graphical User Interface Builders 83

Edsger Dijkstra, Influential Computer Scientist 85

Conclusions 87

6 Law: From Parchment to PCs 89

Online Legal Research 89

The Code of Hammurabi 92

Expert Systems 93

Document Assembly 95

Lawyer in a Box 97

Docketing Systems 98

Electronic Court Filing 99

Electronic Discovery 102

Virtual Accident Reconstruction 103

Richard Susskind, Author of The Future of Law 104

Conclusions 105

7 Medicine: Doctors Enter the Digital Age 108

Electronic Medical Records 108

Privacy of Medical Records 110

Training by Simulation 111

Surgery 112

Imaging and Image Analysis 112

Decision Support 114

Speech Recognition 114

Eliminating Prescription Errors 116

Drug Discovery 117

Morris Collen, Advocate of the Use of Computers in Medicine 117

Conclusions 118

8 How Computers Are Changing the Nature of Work 120

Outsourcing 120

E-lancing 123

Virtual Companies 124

Crowdsourcing 125

Douglas Engelbart, Advocate of Using Computers to Boost Human Ability 127

Conclusions 128

Chronology 132

Glossary 140

Further Resources 154

Index 000

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