Polish-Jewish relations in the 19th and 20th centuries were not limited to the Polish territories. They also took place in the United States between sizeable groups of Polish and Jewish immigrants, and between these immigrants and their national groups back in Poland. Relations between Poles and Jews in the United States were very intricate. They were characterized by conflict and cooperation at the same time. They were shaped both by attitudes and behaviors brought to the New World from Europe and by new developments in America. They were also constantly influenced by news coming from the Polish territories. There were organizations and individuals on both sides which successfully worked together, maintained business relations and/or friendly contacts. There were Jews supporting the struggle for Polish independence and, later, the newly-established Polish state. There were Poles worried by the atrocities that Jews experienced during the World War I and by their fate in the post-Versailles future. There were Poles and Jews cooperating closely in the American trade unions and socialist organizations. At the same time, negative stereotypes of Jews were often popular among Poles. Moreover, members of both groups retained memories of unfriendly actions believed to have been undertaken by the other side. Numerous members of both groups perceived the other side as an enemy who impeded or even made the realizations of certain goals of their groups impossible, goals often perceived as most...