This special issue brings together and promotes research, theory, and policy on confronting and reducing sexism. The first section on “Confronting Sexism” presents articles that identify key aspects of situations and of individuals that are associated with confronting, and highlight variables that moderate the target’s and ally’s confronting behavior. The second section on “Interventions for Reducing Sexism”presents articles that examine optimal ways to reduce sexism, identify factors that affect the efficacy of interventions, and highlight structural and cultural influences that bolster sexism and prevent the acceptance of interventions.
About the Author
Julia Becker is a professor of social psychology at the University of Osnabrueck (Germany). Her research focuses on ways to explain why disadvantaged group members tolerate societal systems that produce social and economic inequality and how legitimizing ideologies (such as sexism) help to maintain unequal status relations. Building on this, she is interested in people's motivation in activism for social change.
Matthew J. Zawadzki is a post-doctoral scholar in the Department of Biobehavioral Health at The Pennsylvania State University. His research investigates how psychological processes affect health with a focus on creating, testing, and implementing interventions to improve well-being.
Stephanie A. Shields is Professor of Psychology and Women's Studies at The Pennsylvania State. Her research is at the intersection of human emotion, gender, and feminist psychology. Her current work focuses on development and testing of WAGES, perception of emotion regulation in others, and theoretical and methodological issues relevant to applying intersectionality theory in psychological research.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTIONConfronting and Reducing Sexism: A Call for Research on InterventionJulia C. Becker, Matthew J. Zawadzki, and Stephanie A. Shields 603SECTION I: CONFRONTING SEXISMDo You Say Something When It’s Your Boss? The Role of Perpetrator Power in Prejudice ConfrontationLeslie Ashburn-Nardo, John C. Blanchar, Jessica Petersson, Kathryn A. Morris, and Stephanie A. Goodwin 615
Allies against Sexism: The Role of Men in Confronting SexismBenjamin J. Drury and Cheryl R. Kaiser 637
Confronting Sexism as Persuasion: Effects of a Confrontation’s Recipient, Source, Message, and ContextSarah J. Gervais and Amy L. Hillard 653
Ways to Go: Men’s and Women’s Support for Aggressive and Nonaggressive Confrontation of Sexism as a Function of Gender IdentificationJulia C. Becker and Manuela Barreto 668
A Review of Organizational Strategies for Reducing Sexual Harassment: Insights from the U. S. MilitaryNiCole T. Buchanan, Isis H. Settles, Angela T. Hall, and Rachel C. O’Connor 687
SECTION II: INTERVENTIONS FOR REDUCING SEXISMUsing Experiential Learning to Increase the Recognition of Everyday Sexism as Harmful: The WAGES InterventionJessica L. Cundiff, Matthew J. Zawadzki, Cinnamon L. Danube, and Stephanie A. Shields 703
Reflecting on Heterosexual and Male Privilege: Interventions to Raise AwarenessKim A. Case, Rachel Hensley, and Amber Anderson 722From Sex to Gender: A University Intervention to Reduce Sexism in Argentina, Spain, and El SalvadorSoledad de Lemus, Laura Navarro, Marta Velasquez, Estrella Ryan, and Jesus L. Megyas 741
Sanctioning and Stimulating Resistance to Sexual Objectification: An Integrative System-justification PerspectiveRachel M. Calogero and Tracy L. Tylka 763
SECTION III: COMMENTARYCommentary: Encouraging Confrontation 779