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Overview

Constraints and Language by Philippe Blache

The concept of constraint is widely used in linguistics, computer science, and psychology. However, its implementation varies widely depending on the research domain: namely, language description, knowledge representation, cognitive modelling, and problem solving. These various uses of constraints offer complementary views on intelligent mechanisms. For example, in-depth descriptions implementing constraints are used in linguistics to filter out syntactic or discursive structures by means of dedicated description languages and constraint ranking. In computer science, the constraint programming paradigm views constraints as a whole, which can be used, for example, to build specific structures. Finally, in psycholinguistics, experiments are carried out to investigate the role of constraints within cognitive processes (both in comprehension and production), with various applications such as dialog modelling for people with disabilities. In this context, Constraints and Language builds an extended overview of the use of constraints to model and process language. This book will be useful for researchers willing to get a grip on the various uses of constraints in natural language processing, and also as a class book for academic staff who want to set up advanced courses around the concept of constraint-based natural language processing.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781443860529
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Publication date: 08/15/2014
Pages: 325
Product dimensions: 5.80(w) x 8.20(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Philippe Blache is Director of Research at CNRS (French National Institute for Scientific Research). Since 2012, he has been Director of the cluster of excellence Brain and Language Research Institute. His scientific interests center on natural language processing and formal linguistics. He is working on the development of a new constraint-based theory, Property Grammars, making it possible to represent all kinds of information by means of constraints.Henning Christiansen is Professor of Computer Science at Roskilde University, Denmark. He was born in Aarhus, Denmark and received a Master's degree from Aarhus University in 1981 and a PhD from Roskilde in 1988. His main interests include programming techniques, artificial intelligence, logic and constraint programming, abduction and language analysis. He has also recently started to work with interactive installations for art presentation and interactive theatre.Veronica Dahl is an Argentine/Canadian Computer Scientist, who is recognised as one of the 15 founders of the field of logic programming for her pioneering contributions, particularly in human language processing and deductive knowledge bases. Her book on Logic Grammars was used throughout the world to help discover the human genome. Her work on computational molecular biology has had great practical impact in areas including agriculture and marine sciences.Denys Duchier has been Professor of Computer Science at Universite d'Orleans, France, since 2006. He received his PhD from Yale University, United States, in 1991. He later moved to the University of Saarland, Germany, where he worked on the design and implementation of the Oz programming language. His research interests focus on the application of constraints in computational linguistics, and on the design of programming languages.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations xi

List of Tables xiii

Preface xv

I Foundations and Overview 1

1 Constraints in (Computational) Linguistics Philippe Blache Jørgen Villadsen 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Constraints and programming 4

1.3 Constraints, linguistics and parsing 6

1.3.1 Constraints on trees: active constraints and parsing 8

1.3.2 GPSG: the separation of information 10

1.3.3 HPSG: the notion of satisfaction 11

1.3.4 OT: relaxing constraints 13

1.3.5 PG: constraints as syntactic structure 15

1.4 Conclusion 17

Bibliography 18

2 Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis Henning Christiansen 21

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Background 22

2.2.1 Different Notions of Constraints in Grammars and Logic Programming 22

2.2.2 Constraint Handling Rules, CHR 23

2.3 Abductive Reasoning in Logic Programming with Constraints 25

2.4 Using CHR with Definite Clause Grammars for Discourse Analysis 28

2.5 CHR Grammars 30

2.6 Conclusion 33

Bibliography 33

3 Model-theoretic Syntax: Property Grammars, Status and Directions Philippe Blache Jean-Philippe Prost 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Model Theory for Modelling Natural Language 38

3.3 The Constructive Perspective: A Constraint Network for Representing and Processing the Linguistic Structure 40

3.3.1 Generative-Enumerative vs. Model-Theoretic Syntax 41

3.3.2 Generativity and hierarchical structures 43

3.3.3 The Property Grammar Framework 46

3.4 The Descriptive Perspective: A Constraint Network for Completing the Linguistic Structure 49

3.5 Grammaticality Judgement 52

3.6 Conclusion 55

Bibliography 56

4 Constraints in Optimality Theory: Personal Pronouns and Pointing Helen de Hoop 61

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 First and second versus third person pronouns 64

4.3 Incremental optimisation of anaphoric third person pronouns 70

4.4 OT semantic analysis of personal pronouns and pointing 72

4.5 OT syntactic analysis of personal pronouns and pointing 8

4.6 Conclusion 84

Bibliography 85

II Recent Advances in Constraints and Language Processing 91

5 Constraint-driven Grammar Description Benoît Crabbé Denys Duchier Yannick Parmentier Simon Petitjean 93

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Semi-automatic production of tree-adjoining grammars 97

5.2.1 Lexical rules 97

5.2.2 Description languages 98

5.3 eXtensible MetaGrammar: constraint-based grammar description 100

5.3.1 A language for describing tree fragments 100

5.3.2 A language for combining tree fragments 106

5.3.3 Towards a library of linguistic principles 107

5.4 Cross framework grammar design using metagrammars 109

5.4.1 Producing a lexical-functional grammar using a meta-grammar 111

5.4.2 Producing a property grammar using a metagrammar 114

5.4.3 Towards extensible metagrammars 117

5.5 Conclusion 118

Bibliography 118

6 Extending the Constraint Satisfaction for better Language Processing Kilian A. Foth Patrick McCrae Wolfgang Menzel 123

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 The Constraint Satisfaction Problem 126

6.3 NLP formalisms and the CSP 128

6.3.1 Constraints as value subsets 128

6.3.2 Hard and soft Constraints 130

6.3.3 Uniform and free-form Constraints 131

6.3.4 Axiomatic and empirical grammars 132

6.4 Dependency Grammar Modelling with Locally-Scoped Constraints 133

6.5 Expressivity of WCDG 134

6.6 Extending Local Constraints to Global Phenomena 135

6.6.1 Supra-local Constraints 135

6.6.2 Recursive Tree Traversal 138

6.6.3 Localised Ancillary Constraints 139

6.6.4 Cascading and Recursive Ancillary Constraints 141

6.7 Conclusions 145

6.8 Future work 146

Bibliography 146

7 On Semantic Properties in Constraint-Based Grammars Verónica Dahl Baohua Gu J. Emilia Miralles 149

7.1 Introduction 149

7.2 Background on Property Grammars 151

7.3 Semantic Property Grammars 152

7.4 Our Parsing Methodology 154

7.4.1 Background: HyProlog 154

7.4.2 A Hyprolog Parser for Property Grammars 157

7.5 Related Work 159

7.6 Concision 160

Bibliography 161

Appendix 164

8 Multi-dimensional Type Theory: Rules, Categories and Combinators for Syntax and Semantics Jørgen Villadsen 167

8.1 Introduction 167

8.1.1 Background 168

8.1.2 Arguments 168

8.1.3 Formulas 169

8.1.4 Strings 169

8.1.5 Combinators 170

8.1.6 Type Language and Type Interpretation 171

8.1.7 Theory of Inhabitation and Theory of Formation 172

8.1.8 Nabla 173

8.2 The Rules 173

8.2.1 Comments 175

8.3 The Categories 176

8.3.1 Comments 177

8.4 The Combinators 177

8.4.1 Comments 178

8.5 Examples: Syntax and Semantics 180

8.5.1 Step-by-Step Formula Extraction 181

8.5.2 Further Examples 183

8.6 Conclusion 185

Bibliography 186

9 Constraint-based Sign Language Processing Annelies Braffort Michael Filhol 191

9.1 Introduction 191

9.2 Linguistic description of Sign Languages 192

9.2.1 Phonology 193

9.2.2 Phonetics 193

9.2.3 Lexicon 194

9.2.4 Lexicon, syntax… and linguistic levels 196

9.3 Language models 197

9.3.1 Generative/categorical grammars 197

9.3.2 Machine learning approaches 198

9.3.3 SL-specific approaches 199

9.4 AZee 204

9.5 KAZOO 210

9.5.1 SL Generation Module (SL Gene) 211

9.5.2 Virtual Signer Animation Module (VS Anim) 212

9.6 Conclusion 214

Bibliography 214

10 Geometric Logics Hedda R. Schmidtke 219

10.1 Introduction 220

10.2 Geometric Semantics 221

10.3 Expressiveness of Context Logic 226

10.3.1 Binary Relations in Context Logic 227

10.3.2 Perception and Reasoning 228

10.3.3 Changing Perspectives 229

10.4 Conclusions 231

Bibliography 232

III Applications 235

11 Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese Henning Christiansen Bo Li 237

11.1 Introduction 237

11.2 Background and Related Work 238

11.2.1 The Chinese Word Segmentation Problem 238

11.2.2 CHR Grammars 239

11.3 A Lexicon in a CHR Grammar 242

11.4 Maximum Matching 243

11.5 Maximum Ambiguous Segments 245

11.6 Discussion 247

11.7 Conclusion 248

Bibliography 249

12 Supertagging with Constraints Guillaume Bonfante Bruno Guillaume Mathieu Morey Guy Perrier 253

12.1 Introduction 253

12.2 The Companionship Principle in Brief 257

12.2.1 Parsing with an AB-grammar 257

12.2.2 Filtering lexical laggings with the Companionship Principle 258

12.2.3 Implementation with Automata 261

12.3 Lexicalised Grammars 261

12.4 The Companionship Principle 268

12.4.1 The statement of the Companionship Principle 268

12.4.2 The "Companionship Principle" language 269

12.4.3 Generalisation of the Companionship Principle to abstraction 270

12.4.4 The Undirected Companionship Principle 272

12.4.5 The Affine and Linear Companionship Principles 273

12.5 Implementation of the Companionship Principle with automata 276

12.5.1 Automaton to represent sets of lexical laggings 276

12.5.2 Implementation of the Companionship Principle 277

12.5.3 Approximation: the Rough Companionship Principle (RCP) 280

12.5.4 Affine and Linear Companionship Principle (ACP) 281

12.5.5 Implementation of Lexicalised grammars 283

12.6 Application to Interaction Grammars 284

12.6.1 Interaction Grammars 284

12.6.2 Companionship Principle for IG 287

12.7 Application to Lexicalised Tree Adjoining Grammars (LTAG) 290

12.8 Conclusion 293

Bibliography 294

Contributors 299

Index 305

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