W.A. de Jong President of TNO Until some decades ago man supposed that the resilience of the environment was unlimited. He thought he could draw heavily on nature with impunity and that he could infinitely dump his waste into the environment. We have come to know better now: virtually everyone is well aware that one cannot just go on burdening the environment of man, animal and plant to such an extent. TNO, the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, is among those research institutions that are working on economically feasible solutions for pollution problems resulting from human activities. Soil contamination and remediation feature as important topics in TNO's environmental research programme. In view of the international scope of the problem, TNO organized an international conference on this subject in Utrecht, the Netherlands, in November 1985, which met with a worldwide response from the scientific community as well as from governments and industry. The international interest taken in soil contamination is underlined by the fact that the Second International Conference on Contaminated Soil takes place in a country where remedial action is being given high political priority.
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988|
|Product dimensions:||6.30(w) x 9.45(h) x 0.08(d)|
Table of ContentsI. Behaviour of Contaminants.- I. a. Anorganic compounds.- Analysis and prognosis of metal mobility in soils and wastes.- Comparison of leaching behaviour and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils and soils cleaned up with several extractive and thermal methods.- Transport of heavy metals and phosphate in heterogenous soils.- Influence of sorption and chemical reactions on transport of soil pollutants (heavy metals).- Estimation of long-term behavior of heavy metals in solid wastes.- Use of the Langmuir isotherm to description of Zn sorption by some Polish soils.- Leaching of cyanides.- Mineral reactions and pollutant detection in fissured glimmerton.- Vertical spreading of pollutants in glimmerton.- The influence of soil clean-up on the bioavailability of metals.- Correlations between chemical and biological evaluation procedures for the determination of heavy metal availability from soils.- Contaminant diffusion in sediments, soil and waste materials.- I.b. Organic compounds.- Behaviour of organic contaminants in soil.- Soil substitutes for adsorption measurement of chemicals to soil.- The degradation of specific organic compounds with landfill leachate as a primary substrate.- Valuation of the migration behaviour of substances in the subsoil.- The value of a soil transport model, based on partitioning, for describing the behaviour of organic compounds in the unsaturated zone of the soil.- Adsorption of benzene, toluene and xylenes in soil material.- Fate of 14C-labelled chlorinated phenols in soil.- The fate of naphthalene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil taken from a refinery waste treatment site.- Limitations of the Koc concept inferred from 1-methylnaphthalene sorption on organic coated sorbents.- II. Site Investigation and Analysis.- The importance of measurement procedures in curative and preventive soil protection.- Groundwater contamination by abandoned waste disposal sites: detection and possibilities of standardized assessment.- Geophysics and geostatics for evaluating groundwater pollution.- On-site soil and air analysis with a mobile mass spectrometer.- Kriging interpolation as a sampling strategy in local soil pollution.- Alternative investigation techniques for ground water contamination sites: soil gas testing and spinner-logging/depth sampling a case study.- Microbial degradation of petroleum in contaminated soil analytical aspects.- An integrated approach to the investigation and redevelopment of contaminated sites.- A new system for the profile measurement of chemical/physical parameters.- Determination of the extension, identification and localization of pollutant substances by probes.- Geostatistics in soil pollution research.- Investigation of soil and groundwater at former gasworks sites.- State-wide geoscientific investigations for the evaluation of abandoned waste sites.- Investigations into underground contaminations at old landfills in Northern Bavaria.- Soil studies, risk assessment and restoration suggestions on an abandoned industrial site.- Sampling and conservation of volatile organic micropollutants in groundwater.- Hydrogeological investigations in liassic claystone basis for the redevelopment of Bielefeld-Brake refuse tip.- Mercury (Hg) new ways for an old pathfinder.- Microbiological investigations of an aquifer polluted by hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons in respect of microbiological treatment.- Evaluation of different biomass parameters for microbial monitoring of oil polluted groundwater.- Main contaminants and priority pollutants from waste sites: criteria for selection with the aim of assessment on the groundwater path.- Ionic ratios as a tool to identify and select groundwater resources.- Use of fluorescing agents to study actual and apparent petroleum thicknesses in laboratory columns.- Environmental pollution by beryllium in Japan.- Heavy metals in the soils of Hamburg.- Sources, effects and management of metallic lead pollution. The contribution of hunting, shooting and angling.- Instrumentation for the measurement of landfill gas emissions.- Theory and practice of self potential measurements on waste disposal sites.- Assessment of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in tripping sites (abandoned waste disposal sites and landfills) by soil air and waste analyses.- Gas monitoring measurements for detecting explosion hazards on the Hamburg municipal authority’s developed landfills.- III. Risk Assessment.- Fundamentals for determining use-related, highest acceptable contaminant levels in inner city and urban soils.- Development of a model to set clean-up criteria for contaminated soil at decommissioned industrial sites.- Soil quality standards: science or science fiction an inquiry into the methodological aspects of soil quality criteria.- Essays concerning the discussion of limiting values for residual values of hazardous substances.- Setting trigger concentrations for contaminated land.- Soil standards for soil protection and remedial action in the Netherlands.- Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the soil system: long-term changes, behaviour and current levels in the U.K..- ISO/TC 190 Soil quality, first steps towards a world-wide standardized approach of soil problems.- AGAPE a model for estimating the relative risk of potential contaminated sites.- RISC: an expert system for risk identification of soil contamination.- Hazard estimation of two emittents as component parts of the data-combination system ‘Existing contamination load Soil Ground water’.- Assessment of the risk potential of contaminated sites without taking samples: strategy results problems.- Estimation of the potential hazard deriving from old lanfills using differentiated gas sampling and analytical methods.- Risk assessment for contaminated sites.- Contaminations by chemical armament factories risk potential of soil and groundwater contaminations by closed down chemical armament industry plants in the FRG and GDR.- The Volgermeerpolder, a case study.- Fiber dust emissions on dumps and their assessment.- Methods for an action oriented program concerning risk assessment and danger abatement of contaminated sites on a regional scale.- An expert system for groundwater vulnerability assessment.- IV. Public Health and Toxicology.- Experience in the appraisal of health risks owing to soil contamination.- An international study on social aspects etc. of contaminated land.- Setting up a network of Health and Environment Medical Officers in primary health services.- Human health observed through the ‘ecological looking glass’.- The influence of soil pollution on the indoor air quality.- Studies of organic pollutant uptake by plants.- Toxicant screening in soil using bioassays.- Arsenic in gley-soils, occurrence and human exposure.- V. Remedial Action Techniques.- V.a. General aspects.- Lessons learned: a basis for future success.- Contaminated land: the scale of the problem in Europe, costs of clean up and application of novel techniques to reduce clean up costs.- A computer model for contaminated land reclamation schemes.- Experiences, problems and possible solutions for a redevelopment of contaminated industrial sites.- Land management at industrial sites.- Soil management an industry-specific approach.- General survey of site clearance techniques: trend towards in-situ treatment.- Analysis concerning thermically, physically-chemically and biologically treated contaminated sites.- General program for research and development of the remedial action technologies used for hazardous waste landfills evaluated at the landfill Gerolsheim/Rheinland-Pfalz.- Motor fuel contamination of soils: current and recent research of the American Petroleum Institute.- Contamination of groundwater by cyanide-bearing former refuse deposits a case study.- V. b. Encapsulation techniques.- New results and aspects in the area of seal wall research.- Surface coverings for tips and contaminated sites.- Geotechnical data requirements for earthen hydraulic barriers.- Resistance of mineral sealing wall masses against seepage waters from old storages.- Soil covering systems as remedial action in contaminated housing areas in the Netherlands.- The refurbishment of contaminated sites and high-safety waste dump technology.- Safer sealing systems for waste dumps.- The diaphragm wall chamber system inspection of the efficacy and long-term observations.- Cut-off wall with inserted HDPE-panel in comparison to a soil-concrete wall.- Long-term behaviour of encapsulation materials especially for cleaning-up hazardous waste landfills.- Assessment of mobility and transport of organic contaminants through mineralic containment materials.- Diffusive pollutant migration under encapsulation and its retardation or interruption by means of an inversion flow.- Test seal wall for Gerolsheim hazardous waste dump.- Concept for surface sealing at the special waste depot of Gerolsheim.- Optimizing form and covering of disposal sites for minimizing infiltration water.- Possibilities and limitations of surface covering systems for waste sites.- The management of the hydrologic system of the landfill Hamburg-Georgswerder.- Measuring the water balance of various multilayered covering systems on the waste tip Georgswerder (Hamburg, FRG).- New requirements and developments for groundwater protection with plastic liners.- V.c. Microbiological techniques.- Review of biological soil treatment techniques in the Netherlands.- Engineering significance of fundamental concepts in xenobiotics biodegradation in soil.- Applied biotechnology for decontamination of polluted soils. Possibilities and problems.- Latest development of biological in situ remedial action techniques, portrayed by examples from Europe and USA.- Aspects on the in-situ and on-site removal of hydrocarbons from contaminated sites by biodegradation.- In situ biorestoration of a subsoil, contaminated with gasoline.- Bioremediation of hazardous waste sites in the USA: case histories.- Microbial degradation of phenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid in continuous culture.- Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in anaerobic sediment columns.- Biodegradation of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane by a bacterium isolated from polluted soil.- Decontamination of a coal gasification site through application of vanguard microorganisms.- Biorestoration, a technique for remedial action on industrial sites.- Prerequisites for a bacterial degradation of N-, S- and O-heterocyclic, aromatic compounds.- Bioaccumulation of heavy metals from polluted soils.- Elimination of the toxic seepage water at the Kirchlengern refuse disposal site using more complex plants.- V.d. Thermal techniques.- Progress in the treatment of soils contaminated with organochlorine compounds. A comparison between the Netherlands and the USA.- Test of a transportable full-scale rotary kiln incinerator on herbicide-orange contaminated soil at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, Mississippi.- Six years of experience in thermal soil cleaning.- Review of thermal and extraction soil treatment plants in the Netherlands.- Remedying polluted soil by thermal treatment system Deutag/Von Roll. (Thermal decontamination of various polluted soils in a pilot plant).- Process for PCDD and PCDF removal from contaminated soil.- High temperature thermal treatment of contaminated soil.- Further development of a thermal soil purification method under special consideration of waste gas purification and safety aspects as an example for successful international cooperation.- Deutsche Babcock process for the thermal cleaning of contaminated soils.- Demonstration of electric infrared incineration.- Experiences with thermal disposal of gases from contaminated soil.- Ecological recovery of decontaminated soil.- The recolonisation by bacteria of thermically cleaned soil.- In situ vitrification an innovative melting technology for the remediation of contaminated soil.- V.e. Physical techniques.- Physico-chemical treatment methods for soil remediation.- High-pressure soil washing. Process for cleaning polluted soil in Berlin..- Experience gained with a soil-decontamination system in Berlin.- Physical techniques for the in situ cleaning of contaminated soil.- An examination of various soil excavation techniques of herbicide-orange contamination at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, Nississippi.- In situ cadmium removal full-scale remedial action of contaminated soil.- In-situ mobilisation of residual oil in contaminated soil development of a method for selecting oil-mobilising surfactants.- Liquid extraction an element in the clean-up of waste sites. Site investigation with observation wells.- Field-study of soil-gas exhaustion on a landfill to investigate the risk potential depending on chlorinated hydrocarbons.- Experiences joined in the remediation of CHC-contamination cases.- Disposal of leachate by evaporation.- Detoxification of organic liquids using sodium / dehalogenation of harmful substances.- V.f. Solidification techniques.- Status of solidification/stabilization in the United States and factors affecting its use.- Application technique for safe fixing of coking residues on the basis of a stabilisation process according to ‘Heide-Werner’, and first results on the behaviour regarding elution.- Solidification, stabilization and encapsulation of organic compounds from remedial actions using inorganic and organic fillers and binding agents.- Industrial wastes rehabilitation.- List of addresses of first-named authors (Vol. 1).- Key words (Vol. 1).