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Springer New York
Contemporary Sociological Theory: An Integrated Multi-Level Approach / Edition 1

Contemporary Sociological Theory: An Integrated Multi-Level Approach / Edition 1

by Doyle Paul Johnson
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900387765210
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 04/23/2008
Edition description: 2008
Pages: 630
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

About the Author

D. Paul Johnson is a Professor and the former Chair of the Department of Sociology at Texas Tech University.

Table of Contents

Setting the Stage     1
Introduction: From Implicit to Explicit Theories     3
Everyday Life Theories and Facts of Life     3
Moving from Implicit to Explicit Theories     5
Multiple Levels of Social Reality and Contrasting Theoretical Perspectives     8
Agency and Structure     12
National Variations in the Origins of Sociological Theory     13
Postrevolutionary French Positivism     14
German Historicism     14
English-Scottish Laissez-Faire Political Economy and British Utilitarianism     15
American Pragmatism and Micro-Level Interaction     17
Summary     19
Classical Stage European Sources of Sociological Theory     23
Social and Intellectual Background     24
Science, Social Evolution, and the Dream of a More Rational Society     25
Confronting the Nonrational Dimensions of Social Life     27
Dominant Figures in the Establishment of Sociology     29
Emile Durkheim: Sociology as the Science of Social Integration     29
Karl Marx: Human Needs, Class Conflict, and Social Change     32
Max Weber: Social Action as the Foundation of Society     34
Georg Simmel: Interaction Processes     39
Other ImportantPioneers     42
Harriet Martineau: Discovering the Discrepancy Between Morals and Manners     42
Alexis de Tocqueville: An Analysis of American Democracy     44
Vilfredo Pareto: Logical Versus Nonlogical Action     44
Ferdinand Tonnies: Contrasting Community and Society     46
Marianne Weber: Exposing the Subordination of Women at Home and Work     46
Summary     49
Development of American Sociology: A Brief Historical Overview     53
Chicago School Beginnings: Social Interaction and Social Reform     54
George Herbert Mead and Social Behaviorism     54
Jane Addams: Applying Sociology Through Social Work and Social Reform     59
W. I. Thomas and the "Definition of the Situation"     61
Robert Ezra Park: Observing and Analyzing the Social Life of the City     62
Other Significant Pioneers in Early American Sociology     64
Charles Horton Cooley: Primary Groups and the Looking-Glass Self     64
W. E. B. Du Bois: African Americans' Double Consciousness "Within the Veil"     65
Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexual Relations Related to Home and Work     69
Development of Functional Theory for Analyzing Society's Institutional Structures     73
Talcott Parsons and the Development of Structural/Functional Theory     75
Alternative Perspectives Within Functionalism     76
Merton's Middle-Range Functionalism     76
Coser's Conflict Functionalism     76
Alternatives to Functionalism     76
Blumer and Symbolic Interactionism     76
Mills and Critical Sociology     76
Homans and Exchange Behaviorism     77
Summary     77
Formal Theory Construction: Developing Sociological Theory as Part of a Scientific Enterprise     81
Linking Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Research     82
Objective Versus Subjective Dimensions of Social Reality     83
Prediction versus Interpretation     85
Strategies of Formal Theory Construction     86
Concepts and Variables     87
Classification Systems     89
Propositions     90
Causes and Consequences     92
Interdependent Relations     93
Thresholds and Limits     94
The Challenge of Causal Explanation     96
Theory: A Set of Propositions     98
The Challenge of Multiple Paradigms: Underlying Assumptions, Beliefs, and Values that Influence Theory Construction     100
Summary     103
Moving from Micro to Meso to Macro Levels     107
Symbolic Interaction: Constructing the Social World-and its Participants' Identities     109
Symbolic Interaction-Process Versus Structure     110
Roles and Identities     114
Staging Performances: The Dramaturgic Approach to Interaction     120
Teams and Audiences     122
The Precariousness of the Social World     123
Interaction Challenges of the Stigmatized     125
The Context of Interaction     126
Language, Social Reality, and the Cultural World     129
Summary     133
Phenomenological Sociology and Ethnomethodology: The Everyday Life World of Common Sense     137
Phenomenological Sociology: Alfred Schutz's Contributions     138
Personal Versus Intersubjective Consciousness     139
Meanings, Motives, and Accounts     141
Mutual Understanding in Personal Versus Impersonal Relations     143
Contemporaries, Predecessors, and Successors     145
Phenomenological Perspective on Sociological Knowledge     146
Ethnomethodology     148
Reciprocity of Perspectives     149
Context and Meaning     152
The Social Construction of Reality: Berger and Luckmann     155
Mutual Interdependence of Social Institutions and Subjective Consciousness     156
Cultural Homelessness in the Modern and Late Modern World     159
Summary     160
Social Exchange and Rational Choice at the Micro Level: Looking Out for #1     165
Historical Background: Individualistic Versus Collectivist Theories of Social Exchange     167
A Behavioral Approach to Elementary Exchanges$dContributions by George C. Homans     169
Behavioral Dynamics of Groups     169
Psychological Foundations of Social Relations     170
Applications of Exchange Theory to Elementary Social Behavior     173
Elementary Social Exchanges and the Emergence of Power Structures: Peter Blau's Micro-Level Exchange Theory     175
Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Rewards     177
Dilemmas of Attraction     178
How Power Structures Develop from Imbalanced Exchanges     179
Acquiring Power or Avoiding Subordination Through Strategic Exchanges     180
Individual Interests and Group Dynamics     182
Individual Interests, Rights, and Resources: James Coleman's Perspective on Exchanges Between Rational Actors     185
The Risk of Perverse Effects     188
Summary     191
Networking and Belonging: Opportunity Structures, Rational Choice Exchanges, and the Sociology of Emotions     195
Opportunities and Limitations: Peter Blau's Structural Approach     196
Networks, Groups, and Personal Relationships     201
Network Analysis     201
Exchange Processes in Networks, Groups, and Personal Relationships     204
Social Bonding and the Sociology of Emotions     206
Gender Differences in Emotional Bonding Versus Pursuit of Self-Interests     209
Emotional Labor in Organizational Settings     214
Cyberspace Markets, Networks, and Personal Relationships     218
Summary     220
From Micro-Level Exchanges to Meso- and Macro-Level Structures     223
Emergence of Macro Structures from Imbalanced Exchanges     224
Micro-Level Competition for Status and Power     224
Stabilization of Power Structures Through Norms and Values     226
From Power Structures to Meso and Macro Structures     227
Legitimation Versus Opposition of Power Structures     230
Institutionalization in Macro-Structures     232
Social Capital and Corporate Actors from a Rational Choice Perspective     235
Normative and Legal Regulation of People's Behavior     236
Promoting Normative Conformity and Deterring Deviance     239
Social Capital and Public Goods      241
Establishment of Corporate Actors and Authority Relations     242
Corporate Actors Versus Natural Persons     247
Summary     248
Meso-Level Structures: Communities and Organizations     253
Communities: Actual, Potential, and Ideal     255
Geographical Communities     257
Ecology and Community in Urban Environments     258
Communities of Shared Interests and Values and Socioemotional Bonds     265
Formal Organizations and Individual Versus Collective Goals     267
Primary Beneficiaries of Organizational Goals     269
Organizational Control and Compliance Structures     270
Bureaucrats Versus Professionals in Organizational Settings     271
Formal Organizations as Open Systems     272
Variations in Interdependence     273
Variations in Boundary Permeability     274
Organizational Relations     276
Summary     277
Meso-Level Structures: Markets and Socioeconomic Classes     281
Markets and Individual Versus Collective Interests     283
Economic Market Instability and Government Regulation     284
Economic Versus Socioemotional Markets     285
Socioeconomic Classes      288
Economic Resources as the Foundation for Socioeconomic Stratification     288
Economic Classes in American Society     290
Education, Socioeconomic Status Groups, and Lifestyle     293
Occupational Authority Structures and Socioeconomic Class Cultures     295
Reproduction of Class Cultures: Material Conditions and Symbolic Definitions     300
Summary     306
Integration and Social Order at the Macro Level: Parsons' Structural-Functional Perspective     309
From Social Action to Social Systems: Introducing Parsons' Structural/Functional Theory     310
The Voluntaristic Theory of Social Action     312
The Pattern Variables: Variations in Subjective Orientations     313
The Strategy of Structural-Functional Analysis     317
Functional Requirements and Institutional Structures of Societies     318
The AGIL Framework     320
Subsystem (Institutional) Interchanges     325
Hierarchy of Cultural Control     327
Structural Differentiation in the Evolution of Modern Society     328
Human Life, Social Action, and Ultimate Reality     333
Summary     335
Middle-Range Functionalism and Neofunctionalism     339
Robert Merton and Middle-Range Functionalism      341
Middle-Range Functional Analysis     341
Latent Dysfunctions, Social Problems, and Social Change     344
Examples of Middle-Range Functional Theories     347
Social Structure and Anomie     347
The Bureaucratic Personality     348
Reference Group Theory     348
From Functionalism to Neofunctionalism     349
Social Action and Social Order: Jeffrey Alexander's Multidimensional Perspective     350
Social Action and Social Order: Environmental Versus Normative Influences     351
Alexander's Critique of Earlier Theories     355
Contrasting Dimensions of Action in Richard Munch's Neofunctional Perspective     359
AGIL Dimensions of Action     359
Contrasting Theoretical Perspectives Related to the AGIL Framework     361
Summary     364
Conflict and Competition: Analytical Conflict Theories at the Macro Level     367
Functional Analysis of Conflict: Lewis Coser's Contributions     368
Conflict Between Groups and In-Group Solidarity     369
Conflict and Group Solidarity     370
Realistic Versus Unrealistic Conflict     371
Conflict as a Stimulus for Cooperation Between Groups     372
Authority Relations and Conflicting Interests: Ralf Dahrendorf's Contributions     373
Conflict Group Formation     375
Intensity and Violence of Conflict     377
Consequences of Conflict     378
Conflict Model Versus Functional Model     380
Stratification and Conflict in Interpersonal and Institutional Settings: Randall Collins' Theoretical Synthesis     380
Interaction Rituals and Social Stratification     383
Occupation, Authority Relations, and Socioeconomic Status     384
Applications of the Model     386
World Systems Theory and International Exploitation: Immanuel Wallerstein's Contributions     387
Summary     392
Critical Theory: Social System Requirements Versus Human Needs     397
C. Wright Mills: The Sociological Imagination and Critical Analysis     399
Historical Development of the American Power Structure     400
Mass Media and Mass Society     402
The American Power Structure and the "Iron Law of Oligarchy"     403
Theoretical Developments Within Marxism     404
Development of American Critical Theory     407
Lifeworld Versus System: The Critical Perspective of Jurgen Habermas     409
The Legitimation Crisis in the Political Organization of Capitalism     409
Alternative Forms of Communication and Rationality     412
Knowledge and Power in Michel Foucault's Perspective     415
Surveillance and Social Control     417
Professional Expertise and Social Control     418
Summary     422
Exploring Multi-Level Theoretical Perspectives     427
Feminist Theory at Multiple Levels: Analytical and Critical     429
Feminist Critique of Sociology: Dorothy Smith's Standpoint Theory     431
Exploring Differences Among Women in Multiple Hierarchies of Domination in Patricia Hill Collins' Perspective     434
Micro-Level Analyses of Gender Differences     436
Biological Sex and Gender Differences     437
Male-Female Differences in Socioemotional Bonds with Parents     439
Matters of Life and Death     440
Wives Versus Husbands in Family Life     441
Macro-Level Critique of Male Domination     443
Institutional Differentiation and the Organized Control of Violence     444
Evolutionary Progress from a Feminist Functionalist Perspective     446
Explaining Gender Inequality: Janet Saltzman Chafetz's Theory of Gender Stratification     447
Mechanisms of Macro-Level Domination Through Impersonal Texts     451
Summary     454
Human Agency, the Structuration Process, and Social Systems: Linking Micro, Meso, and Macro Levels of Analysis     459
Structuration Theory: Reproduction and Transformation of the Social World     460
Agency     462
Social Structures and Systems     465
Sociological Analysis and Public Discourse     468
The Dynamics of Open Systems     469
Walter Buckley's "Morphogenic Process" Model of Social Systems     470
Variations in Social System Dynamics     473
Feedback Cycles in Goal-Oriented Systems     474
Morphogenesis, Morphostasis, and Entropy     476
From Unorganized to Organized Complexity: Niklas Luhmann's Perspective on the Self-Creation of Social Systems     477
Self-Organization and Boundary Formation     478
Social Systems Versus Psychic Systems     479
Managing Complexity     482
Interaction Versus Organization Versus Society as Systems     484
Summary     487
The Sociobiological Perspective: Biological Versus Cultural Influences on Human Behavior     491
The Historical Background of Social Darwinism     492
Exploring the Biological and Genetic Foundations of Social Behavior     495
Sex Roles and Reproductive Behavior     498
Parenting Behavior      502
Altruism and Cooperation Within Groups     506
Competition and Conflict     508
Status Competition and Dominance Hierarchies Within Groups     509
War and Peace in Intergroup Relations     511
Religion and Sociobiological Evolution     512
Sociobiology and Cultural Evolution     515
Summary     516
The Dynamics of Cultural Systems     519
Cultural Learning and Human Survival     520
Cultural Morphogenesis: Consistencies and Contradictions in Knowledge and Beliefs in Margaret Archer's Perspective     521
Civilized Behavior, Centralization of Power, and Functional Interdependence in Norbert Elias's Theory     526
Self-Control and Civilized Manners     527
Political Centralization and Expansion of Functional Interdependence     529
The Struggle Between Good and Evil: Jeffrey Alexander's Cultural Sociology     535
Summary     539
Postmodern Social and Cultural Fragmentation     543
Postmodernity or Late Modernity?     544
Skepticism Regarding Knowledge and Authority     548
Globalization and its Impact on Nation-States and Local Settings     550
Mass Media and the Representation Versus the Simulation of Reality     553
Popular Culture and Experiments in Identity Construction     556
Enchanted Consumption as a Source of Identity and Status     558
Sociology of the Body: Body Shaping and Decorating as Expressive Reactions to Individual Anonymity     560
Summary     563
Conclusion     567
Preliminary Stage Setting     567
From Micro to Meso to Macro Levels     569
Toward Theoretical Integration: Strategies and Challenges     578
Glossary     585
References     601
Index     615

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