Contemporary Theories and Systems in Psychology

Contemporary Theories and Systems in Psychology

by Benjamin B. Wolman


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Twenty years is a long time in the life of a science. While the historical roots of psychology have not changed since the first edition of this book, some of the offshoots of the various theories and systems discussed have been crit­ ically reexamined and have undergone far-reaching modifications. New and bold research has led to a broadening of perspectives, and recent devel­ opments in several areas required a considerable amount of rewriting. I have been fortunate in the last fifteen years to have worked with about 2,000 psychologists and other behavioral scientists who contributed to several collected volumes I have edited. As the editor-in-chief of the In­ ternational Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Neurol­ ogy, I have had the privilege of reading, scrutinizing, and editing the work of 1,500 experts in psychology and related disciplines. In addition, I have written several books and monographs and over one hundred scientific papers. Armed with all that experience, I have carefully examined the pages of the first edition. Chapter 8 required substantial rewriting and several new sections have been added to other chapters: "Current Soviet Psychol­ ogy" (Chapter 2, Section 7); "New Ideas on Purposivism" (Chapter 5, Sec­ tion 4); "Recent Developments in the Sociological School of Psychoanalysis" (Chapter 9, Section 4); and "Present Status of Gestalt Psychology" (Chapter 12, Section 4). Chapter 15 was omitted, and two new chapters were added: Chapter 14 ("Humanistic Psychology") and Chapter 16 ("Selected Research Areas").

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468438239
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 03/30/2012
Edition description: 1981
Pages: 652
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.05(d)

Table of Contents

I Conditioning, Behaviorism, and Purposivism.- 1 The Great Beginnings.- 1. Psychophysical Parallelism and Introspectionism.- 2. Functionalism.- 3. Edward L. Thorndike: Connectionism.- 2 Conditioned Reflexes.- 1. The Objective Study of the Higher Nervous Processes.- 2. Conditioning.- 3. Theory of Personality.- 4. Concluding Remarks on Pavlov.- 5. Vladimir M. Bekhterev: Reflexology.- 6. Under the Banner of Marx and Pavlov.- 7. Current Soviet Psychology.- 3 Behaviorism and Reductionism.- 1. John B. Watson: Psychology as the Science of Behavior.- 2. The Early Behaviorists.- 3. Karl S. Lashley: Brain Mechanisms.- 4. Donald O. Hebb: Organization of Behavior.- 4 Neo-Behaviorism and Learning Theory.- 1. Edwin R. Guthrie: Learning by Contiguity.- 2. Clark L. Hull: Deductive Behaviorism.- 3. B. F. Skinner: Inductive Behaviorism.- 4. Edward C. Tolman: Purposive Behaviorism.- 5. Gregory Razran: Evolutionary Levels of Learning.- 6. Learning Theory Influenced by Psychoanalysis.- 7. Some Problems in the Theory of Learning.- 8. The Current Status of Learning Theory.- 5 Hormic and Holistic Theories.- 1. William McDougall: Hormic Psychology.- 2. Kurt Goldstein: Holistic System.- 3. Jacob R. Kantor: Organismic Psychology.- 4. Some New Ideas on Purposivism.- Summary of Part I.- II Psychoanalysis and Related Systems.- 6 Psychoanalysis.- 1. Methodology.- 2. Postulates.- 3. The Unconscious.- 4. Theory of Instincts: Eros and Thanatos.- 5. Developmental Stages.- 6. Theory of Personality.- 7. Society and Culture.- 8. Psychoanalysis as a Philosophy of Life.- 9. Concluding Remarks on Psychoanalysis.- 7 Individual and Analytic Psychologies.- 1. Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology.- 2. Carl Gustav Jung: Analytic Psychology.- 8 New Theories in Psychoanalysis.- 1. Psychoanalysis Modified by Clinical Experience: Orthodox and Unorthodox.- 2. Early Modifications in Psychoanalytic Theory.- 3. Ego Psychology.- 4. Psychoanalysis and Studies of Culture.- 5. Interactional Psychoanalysis.- 6. Psychoanalysis and Experimental Psychology.- 7. Critical Analyses of Psychoanalytic Concepts.- 9 Away from Freud: The Sociological School.- 1. New Ways in Psychoanalysis.- 2. Karen Horney: Psychoanalysis without Libido.- 3. Erich Fromm: Historical and Ethical Psychoanalysis.- 4. Harry S. Sullivan: A Theory of Interpersonal Relations.- 5. Recent Developments in Horney’s Theory.- Summary of Part II.- III Understanding, Gestalt, and Field Psychologies.- 10 Understanding Psychology.- 1. Kant’s Heritage.- 2. Wilhelm Dilthey: The Understanding Psychology.- 11 Personalistic Psychology.- 1. Edward Spranger: Psychology of Personality.- 2. William Stern: Persons versus Things.- 3. Gordon W. Allport: Personality Traits.- 12 Gestalt Psychology.- 1. Opposition to Associationism.- 2. Gestalt: Theoretical Foundations.- 3. Gestalt: Perception, Learning, and Thinking.- 4. Present Status of Gestalt Psychology.- 13 Field Theory.- 1. Field Theory versus Class Theory.- 2. Lewin’s Mathematical Concepts.- 3. Lewin’s Logical Constructs.- 4. Locomotion: Theory of Behavior.- 5. Theory of Personality.- 6. Group Dynamics.- 7. Field Theory as an Experiment in Theory Construction.- 14 Humanistic Psychology.- 1. The Humanistic Movement.- 2. Andras Angyl.- 3. Abraham Maslow.- 4. Henry A. Murray.- 5. J. F. T. Bugental.- 6. Gardner Murphy.- 7. Carl Rogers.- Summary of Part III.- IV Psychology and the Scientific Method.- 15 The Scientific Method.- 1. First Principles.- 2. Collection of Data.- 3. Interpretation of Data and Theory Construction.- 4. The Language of Sciences.- 5. Some Current Methodological Problems.- 16 Selected Issues.- 1. The Mind-Body Dichotomy.- 2. Beyond Pleasure and Pain.- 3. Perception.- 4. Personality.- Summary of Part IV.- Author Index.

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