Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology: Thymus Dependency

Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology: Thymus Dependency

by A Davies (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1973)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468409215
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 12/27/2012
Series: Contemporary topics in immunobiology , #2
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1973
Pages: 368
Product dimensions: 0.00(w) x 0.00(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1. The Thymus and Lymphomyeloid System in Poikilothermic Vertebrates.- The Thymus and Transplantation Immunity.- Thymectomy in Anurans.- Thymectomy in Urodeles.- Antigen Trapping in Lymphomyeloid Organs of Anurans.- Thymus, Spleen, and Lymph Gland Control of Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Larval Amphibians.- Antibody Formation by Thymus, Spleen, and Pronephros.- Fishes.- Amphibians.- Rosette-Cell Formation in Amphibian Thymus and Spleen and Fish Thymus, Spleen, and Pronephros.- Fishes.- Amphibians.- Thymus—Bone Marrow Interactions in the Leopard Frog.- Summary.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 2. Effect of Thymectomy on Immunological Responses in the Sheep.- Development of the Lymphoid Apparatus.- Prenatal Development.- Postnatal Development.- Development of Immunological Reactivity in the Lamb.- Production of Immunoglobulins in Fetal Lambs and in Newborn Lambs Deprived of Colostrum.- Effect of Fetal Thymectomy on the Development of the Lymphoid Apparatus in the Lamb.- Levels of Lymphocytes in the Blood and Lymph of Thymectomized Lambs.- Effect of Fetal Thymectomy on Immune Responses in the Lamb.- Autogenous Production of Immunoglobulins.- Humoral Antibody and Cellular Responses.- Transplantation and Hypersensitivity Reactions.- Lymphocyte Transfer Reaction in Thymectomized Lambs.- Discussion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 3. Nature of the Responding Organism: Responders and Nonresponders.- Background.- Models of Ir Gene Function.- The PLL Gene.- The Ir-1 Gene.- Nonspecific T-Cell Activation.- Some Qualifications: Immune Response Genes and B Cells.- The T-Cell Receptor and the Ir Gene Product.- Summary.- References.- 4. The Intrathymic Environment.- The Intrathymic Environment.- Subcapsular Cortex.- Inner Cortex.- Medulla.- Perivascular Connective Tissue.- Control of Thymic Lymphocytopoiesis.- Summary.- References.- 5. A Note on Hassall’s Corpuscles.- Microscopic Anatomy of Hassall’s Corpuscles.- Hassall’s Corpuscles and the Presumptive Blood—Thymus Barrier.- Do Hassall’s Corpuscles Respond Morphologically in the Presence of Antigens?.- Hassall’s Corpuscles in Thymuses Grown In Vitro.- Guinea Pigs.- Mice.- Some General Comments and Conclusions.- References.- 6. Cell Migration and the Thymus.- Movement of Thymocytes Inside the Thymus.- Emigration of Thymocytes.- Immigration of Cells into the Thymus.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 7. Ecology of Thymus Dependency.- Definition of the T Territory.- The Absent Population.- The Returning Population.- The Migrant Population.- Ecology of Thymus Dependency.- Morphological Changes After Antigen Stimulation.- Morphological Changes After Immunosuppression.- Brief Note on Phylogeny.- Concluding Remarks.- The Random Hypothesis.- The Ecotaxis Hypothesis.- References.- 8. Morphological Changes in the Thymus-Dependent Lymphoid System Associated with Pathological Conditions in Animals and Man: Their Functional Significance.- Selective Depletion of Lymphoid Tissue by Cyclophosphamide—Modulation of T Lymphocytes by B Lymphocytes.- Morphological Changes in the Thymus-Dependent Lymphoid Tissues in Some Infectious Diseases.- Granuloma Formation in Lymph Nodes.- Changes in the Thymus-Dependent Areas of the Spleen.- Summary.- References.- 9. Immunological Memory.- Adoptive Transfer of Memory.- Evidence for Memory in T and B Lymphocytes.- Origin and Evolution of T and B Memory Cells.- Requirement for Differentiation and Division of T and B Memory Cells in Collaborative Antibody Responses.- Relationship of T and B Memory Cells to Antigen-Binding Lymphocytes.- Life Span and Circulation Patterns of T and B Memory Cells.- Regulatory Influence of T Cells on Antibody Produced by B Cells.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 10. Effects of Adjuvants on Interactions of Different Cell Types in Immune Responses.- Effects of Adjuvants on Peritoneal Exudate Cells Containing Antigen.- Requirement of T Lymphocytes for Adjuvant Effects.- Discussion.- References.- 11. Cytotoxic Cells.- Editorial Comment.- Cytotoxic “B” Cells.- Evidence That Antibody Can Induce Lymphocyte-Mediated Cell Damage.- Antibody Against Lymphocytes.- Antibody Against Target Cells.- Evidence for Antibody Participating in Cytotoxicity Mediated by Immune Lymphocytes.- Nature of Lymphocytes Killing Sensitized Target Cells.- Assay of Effector-Cell Numbers.- Distribution of Effector Cells.- Differentiation from Antibody-Producing Cells and Their Precursors.- Dissociation of Effector Cells from Thymus-Processed Lymphocytes.- Evidence Against Macrophages Acting in the Chang-Cell System.- Thymus Dependency of the Overall Reaction.- Antibody-Induced Cytotoxicity by Lymphocytes in Perspective.- Conclusions.- References.- 12. Thymus Dependency of Rosette-Forming Cells.- Characteristics and Functions of RFC.- Immunized Mice.- Unimmunized Mice.- Are Rosette-Forming Cells T Cells9.- Immunized Mice.- Unimmunized Mice.- T-RFC Subpopulations.- T-Cell Markers.- Adult Thymectomy.- ALS In Vivo.- Thymic Hormones.- In Vitro Activity of Thymus Extracts.- In Vivo Activity of Thymic Extracts.- Presence of “Thymosin-Like” Activity in Normal Serum.- Interpretation.- T-RFC Receptors.- Clinical Applications of the Rosette Test.- Human RFC Detected with Sheep Cells.- Other Antigens.- Evaluation of Immunosuppressive Agents.- Thymic Hormones.- Summary.- References.- 13. Antigen-Binding Cells of the Thymus.- Nature of Antigen Receptors.- Antigen Receptors on Thymocytes.- Factors Influencing the Frequency of Thymic Antigen-Binding Cells.- Antigen Receptors on Thymus-Derived Lymphocytes.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 14. Thymus Dependency and Chronic Antigenic Stimulation: Immunity to Parasitic Protozoans and Helminths.- Parasitic Protozoans.- Leishmania.- Trypanosoma.- Malaria Parasites (Plasmodium).- Helminths.- Trichinella.- Nippostrongylus.- Schistosoma.- General Comments and Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 15. The Thymus and Immune Surveillance.- The Concept of Immune Surveillance.- Demonstration of Tumor Immunity.- Tumor Immunity in Relation to Immunological Status.- Thymus Dependency and Tumor Induction.- Chemical Carcinogenesis.- Virus-Induced and Spontaneous Tumors.- Spontaneous Tumors in Relation to Immune Deficiency.- Thymus Dependency During Tumor Growth.- Thymus-Dependent Responses Affecting Metastasis.- Nature of Thymus-Dependent Responses.- Activities of T Cells During Tumor Growth.- References.- 16. Thymus Independence.- Thymus-Independent “B” Lymphocytes.- Surface Properties and Distribution.- Physiological Properties.- Subclasses.- Role in Regulation of the Immune Response.- Role in Antibody-Mediated Cytotoxicity.- Features of T-Independent Antigens.- Features of the Antibody Response to T-Independent Antigens.- Immunoglobulin.- Memory.- Cell-Mediated Immunity.- Recognition by T Cells.- Mechanism of Antibody Production to T-Independent Antigens.- T-Independent Responses.- Relationship Between T-Independent and T-Dependent Antibody Responses.- Possible Thymus Influence on Antibody Production to T-Independent Antigens.- B-Cell Tolerance to T-Independent Antigens.- SIII.- Levan.- POL.- B-Cell Tolerance: Comparison Between T-Dependent and -Independent Antigens.- Significance of Thymus Independence.- References.- 17. Effect of Pregnancy on the Restoration of Immunological Responses in Neonatally Thymectomized Female Mice.- Summary of “The Pregnancy Experiment”.- Further “Pregnancy Experiments”.- Possible Future Investigations.- References.- 18. Thymus Hormones.- Diffusion Chamber Experiments.- The Pregnancy Experiment.- Thymic Extracts.- References.- 19. Thymic Humoral Factors.- Immunological Restoration of Thymectomized Animals by Thymus Implants Contained in Diffusion Chambers.- Thymus Preparations With Biological Activity.- References.- 20. Thymosin and Other Thymic Hormones: Their Nature and Roles in the Thymic Dependency of Immunological Phenomena.- Nature and Effects of Cell-Free Thymic Fractions.- Bioassays for Thymosin.- Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Thymosin.- Biological Studies With Thymosin in Normal and Thymectomized Mice.- Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Thymosin: Demonstration of Thymosin in Blood.- Maturation of the Immune System Under the Influence of Thymosin: Working Hypothesis.- Concluding Comments.- References.- 21. Some Clinical Implications of Thymus-Dependent Functions.- Development of the Human Thymus.- Immunological Effect of Thymectomy.- Immunodeficiency.- Immunodeficiency and Cancer.- The Thymus and Autoimmunity.- Clinical Tests of Thymus Function.- References.

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