Controlling Maillard Pathways To Generate Flavors available in Hardcover
- Pub. Date:
- American Chemical Society
The role of the Maillard reaction in forming flavors from amino acid and sugar precursors has been studied for many years. To establish the basic chemistry of the reaction, researchers have used model systems, often solutions of a single amino acid with a single sugar. Despite the apparent simplicity of the system, heating such a solution can generate tens if not hundreds of compounds, which requires careful and time-consuming analysis to identify and quantify each component.
Data from the model systems has allowed researchers to study the pathways that lead to flavor formation, and various schemes have been proposed to identify the main "routes" that lead to flavor compounds. Such schemes have led to one of the main control principles, namely an understanding of the role of amino acids in forming some characteristic aromas, e.g., bread flavor from proline, as well as an appreciation of the role of C5 and C6 sugars in controlling the rate of reaction.
Recently, the formation of taste compounds through the Maillard reaction has been investigated and new potent compounds have been discovered that can contribute to the overall flavor formed during the Maillard reaction. These findings also offer the potential for control and manipulation of the Maillard reaction to form specific types of flavor. Although the nature of the end-products of the Maillard reaction in both food and model systems are well documented, applying these principles to control flavor formation in real foods has proved difficult.
This book describes recent research and developments related to the control of the Maillard reaction to give optimum flavor quality. These include kinetic modeling of the reaction, the effect of physical parameters (temperature, time, moisture content, pH), and the effect of chemical parameters (amino acid and sugar composition, the presence of other components). The topics covered relate to real food systems and reaction product flavorings, as well as model systems. Contributors from academia and industry have come together to provide an up to date overview of progress in this important area of flavor research.
About the Author
Donald S. Mottram is Professor of Food Chemistry in the Department of Food Biosciences at the University of Reading.
Andrew J. Taylor is Professor in the Division of Food Sciences at the University of Nottingham.
Table of Contents
1. Predictive Modeling of Flavor Compound Formation in the Maillard Reaction: A SWOT Analysis
M. A. J. S. van Boekel
2. Kinetic Modeling of the Formation of Volatile Compounds in Heated Beef Muscle Extracts Containing Added Ribose
Dimitrios P. Balagiannis, Jack Howard, Jane K. Parker, Neil Desforges, and Donald S. Mottram
3. Dicarbonyl Intermediates: A Control Factor in the Maillard Reaction
Yu Wang and Chi-Tang Ho
4. Dicarbonyls from Maillard Degradation of Glucose and Maltose
M. A. Glomb, J. Gobert, and M. Voigt
5. Generation of 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone during Extrusion Cooking: A Multidisciplinary Approach
Tomas Davidek, Silke Illmann, Andreas Rytz, Hélène Chanvrier, Greet Vandeputte, Heike P. Schuchmann, Imre Blank, and Josef Kerler
6. Hydroxycinnamic Acid - Maillard Reactions in Simple Aqueous Model Systems
Marlene R. Moskowitz and Devin G. Peterson
7. Science and Serendipity: The Maillard Reaction and the Creative Flavorist
David A. Baines, Sandra Bishara, Jane K. Parker, and Donald S. Mottram
8. Meat Flavor Generation in Complex Maillard Model Systems
S. I. F. S. Martins, A. Leussink, E. A. E. Rosing, G. A. Desclaux, and C. Boucon
9. Flavor Development in a Meat-Based Petfood Containing Added Glucose and Glycine
Jane K. Parker, Dimitrios P. Balagiannis, Neil Desforges, and Donald S. Mottram
10. The Effects of Storage on the Formation of Aroma and Acrylamide in Heated Potato
J. Stephen Elmore, Andrew T. Dodson, Adrian Briddon, Nigel G. Halford, and Donald S. Mottram
11. Methionine-Containing Cyclic Dipeptides: Occurrence in Natural Products, Synthesis, and Sensory Evaluation
Neil C. Da Costa, Michael Z. Chen, Debra Merritt, and Laurence Trinnaman
12. Control of Color Formation by Ionic Species in Non-Enzymic Browning Reactions
George P. Rizzi
13. Effect of Physical Properties of Food Matrices on the Maillard Reaction
A. J. Taylor, L. Sivasundaram, L. Moreau, G. A. Channell, and S. E. Hill
14. Control of the Maillard Reaction during the Cooking of Food
Donald S. Mottram and J. Stephen Elmore