Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles / Edition 1

Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles / Edition 1

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Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles / Edition 1

An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance andcooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of UnmannedAerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide tocomputational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facingfuture development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarmUAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeyinga pre-planned course but able to react to their environment bycommunicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary inorder to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely,and successfully.

Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneousarrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned AerialVehicles also offers coverage of path planners that areapplicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles.

Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles isauthored by leading researchers from Cranfield University andprovides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics andengineers working in the area of cooperative systems, cooperativecontrol and optimization particularly in the aerospaceindustry.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470741290
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 01/25/2011
Series: Aerospace Series
Pages: 214
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Antonios Tsourdos is a Reader in Autonomous Systems andControl and Head of the Guidance and Control Group at Cranfield.His research areas include UAV Autonomy, UAV Path Planning,Coordinated Guidance, Cooperative Control, UAV Swarm, AutonomousSensors Network, Sensor and Data Fusion, and Vehicle HealthManagement. He has authored many scientific research papers and hasserved as a guest editor for journal special issues on'multi-vehicle systems cooperative control with applications';'advances in missile guidance and control: theory and practice',and cooperative control approaches for multiple mobile robots'.

Brian A White, now Professor Emeritus at Cranfield, wasuntil recently Head of the Department of Aerospace, Power andSensors and also Head of the Guidance and Control Group atCranfield. His areas of expertise are robust control, non-linearcontrol, estimation, observer applications, inertial navigation,guidance design, soft computing and sensor and data fusion. He haspublished widely in the control science field, mainly on autopilotdesign and guidance. He has managed significant contracts in thearea of guidance. He has organized and run numerous invitedsessions at major control conferences and co-edited a special issueof the IFAC journal Control Engineering Practice on Control inDefence Systems. He has served as associate editor for the IMechEJournal of Aerospace Engineering (Part G), IMechE Journal ofSystems and Control Engineering (Part I), and the Journal ofNonlinear Studies.

Madhavan Shanmugavel is a Research Officer within theGuidance and Control Group at Cranfield.

Table of Contents

About the Authors ix

Series Preface xi

Preface xii

Acknowledgements xiii

List of Figures xv

List of Tables xxi

Nomenclature xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Path Planning Formulation 2

1.2 Path Planning Constraints 3

1.2.1 Flyable Paths: Capturing Kinematics 4

1.2.2 UAV Inertial Manoeuvre Coordinates 6

1.2.3 Generation of Safe Paths for Path Planning 7

1.3 Cooperative Path Planning and Mission Planning 7

1.4 Path Planning - An Overview 10

1.5 The Road Map Method 13

1.5.1 Visibility Graphs 14

1.5.2 Voronoi Diagrams 14

1.6 Probabilistic Methods 16

1.7 Potential Field 16

1.8 Cell Decomposition 17

1.9 Optimal Control 18

1.10 Optimization Techniques 18

1.11 Trajectories for Path Planning 19

1.12 Outline of the Book 20

References 22

2 Path Planning in Two Dimensions 29

2.1 Dubins Paths 30

2.2 Designing Dubins Paths using Analytical Geometry 31

2.2.1 Dubins Path: External Tangent Solution 33

2.2.2 Dubins Path: Internal Tangent Solution 35

2.3 Existence of Dubins Paths 37

2.4 Length of Dubins Path 39

2.5 Design of Dubins Paths using Principles of Differential Geometry 39

2.5.1 Dubins Path Length 43

2.6 Paths of Continuous Curvature 45

2.7 Producing Flyable Clothoid Paths 46

2.8 Producing Flyable Pythagorean Hodograph Paths (2D) 56

2.8.1 Design of Flyable Path using 2D PH curve 61

References 62

3 Path Planning in Three Dimensions 65

3.1 Dubins Paths in Three Dimensions Using Differential Geometry 67

3.2 Path Length-Dubins 3D 72

3.3 Pythagorean Hodograph Paths-3D 72

3.3.1 Spatial PH Curves 73

3.4 Design of Flyable Paths Using PH Curves 74

3.4.1 Design of Flyable Paths 75

References 78

4 Collision Avoidance 81

4.1 Research into Obstacle Avoidance 83

4.2 Obstacle Avoidance for Mapped Obstacles 85

4.2.1 Line Intersection Detection 86

4.2.2 Line Segment Intersection 90

4.2.3 Arc Intersection 94

4.3 Obstacle Avoidance of Unmapped Static Obstacles 103

4.3.1 Safety Circle Algorithm 104

4.3.2 Intermediate Waypoint Algorithm 104

4.4 Algorithmic Implementation 106

4.4.1 Dubins Path Modification 107

4.4.2 Clothoid Path Modification 107

4.4.3 PH Path Modification 110

4.4.4 Obstacle Avoidance in 3D 112

References 115

5 Path-Following Guidance 119

5.1 Path Following the Dubins Path 120

5.2 Linear Guidance Algorithm 124

5.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Guidance 126

5.4 Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance Guidance 132

5.4.1 UAV Direction Control 135

5.4.2 Multiple Conflict Resolution 142

References 145

6 Path Planning for Multiple UAVs 147

6.1 Problem Formulation 149

6.2 Simultaneous Arrival 151

6.3 Phase I: Producing Flyable Paths 152

6.4 Phase II: Producing Feasible Paths 152

6.4.1 Minimum Separation Distance 153

6.4.2 Non-Intersection Paths 154

6.4.3 Offset Curves 155

6.5 Phase III: Equalizing Path Lengths 156

6.6 Multiple Path Algorithm 156

6.7 Algorithm Application for Multiple UAVs 157

6.7.1 2D Dubins Paths 157

6.7.2 2D Clothoid Paths 160

6.8 2D Pythagorean Hodograph Paths 162

6.9 3D Dubins Paths 165

6.10 3D Pythagorean Hodograph Paths 169

References 174

Appendix A Differential Geometry 175

A.1 Frenet-Serret Equations 177

A.2 Importance of Curvature and Torsion 178

A.3 Motion and Frames 179

References 181

Appendix B Pythagorean Hodograph 183

B.1 Pythagorean Hodograph 184

References 185

Index 187

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