ISBN-10:
0471121010
ISBN-13:
9780471121015
Pub. Date:
07/18/2006
Publisher:
Wiley
Coplanar Microwave Integrated Circuits / Edition 1

Coplanar Microwave Integrated Circuits / Edition 1

by Ingo Wolff

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780471121015
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 07/18/2006
Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
Pages: 560
Product dimensions: 6.40(w) x 9.60(h) x 1.60(d)

About the Author

INGO WOLFF, PHD, is the author of ten books and more than 200 papers published in leading microwave journals. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and has been a chairman of the IEEE MTT-1 Com-mittee on Computer Aided Design. His research groups are global leaders in numerical electromagnetic field theory and its application to microwave circuit design.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 Introduction 1

References, 9

2 Transmission Properties of Coplanar Waveguides 11

2.1 Rigorous, Full-Wave Analysis of Transmission Properties, 11

2.1.1 The Coplanar Waveguide with a Single Center Strip and Finite Ground-Plane Width, 12

2.1.2 The Coplanar Waveguide with a Single Center Strip and Infinite Ground-Plane Width, 26

2.1.3 Coupled Coplanar Waveguides, 34

2.1.3.1 Scattering Matrix of Coupled Coplanar Waveguides, 36

2.1.3.2 Coupled Coplanar Waveguides and Microstrip Lines—A Comparison, 40

2.2 Quasi-Static Analysis of Coplanar Waveguides Using the Finite Difference Method, 46

2.2.1 Introduction, 46

2.2.2 The Finite Difference Method as Applied to the Analysis of Coplanar Waveguide Structures, 48

2.2.3 The Solution of Laplace’s Equation for Planar and Coplanar Line Structures Using the Finite Difference Method, 48

2.2.4 Application of the Quasi-Static Techniques to the Analysis of Coplanar Waveguides, 55

2.2.5 Characteristic Parameters of Coplanar Waveguides, 63

2.2.6 The Influence of the Metalization Thickness on the Line Parameters, 72

2.2.7 The Influence of the Ground Strip Width on the Line Parameters, 74

2.2.8 The Influence of the Shielding on the Line Parameters, 75

2.2.9 Special Forms of Coplanar Waveguides, 76

2.2.10 Coplanar-like Waveguides, 80

2.2.11 Coupled Coplanar Waveguide Structures, 89

2.2.11.1 Analysis of the Characteristic Parameter Matrices, 90

2.2.11.2 Determination of the Scattering Matrix of Coupled Coplanar Waveguides, 92

2.3 Closed Formula Static Analysis of Coplanar Waveguide Properties, 95

2.3.1 Analysis of a Generalized Coplanar Waveguide with Supporting Substrate Layers, 95

2.3.1.1 Structure SCPW1, 98

2.3.1.2 Structure SCPW2, 100

2.3.1.3 Structure SCPW3, 100

2.3.1.4 Numerical Results, 100

2.3.2 Static Formulas for Calculating the Parameters of General Broadside-Coupled Coplanar Waveguides, 109

2.3.2.1 Analytical Formulas and Results for the General Broadside-Coupled Coplanar Waveguide, 110

2.3.2.2 Analysis of an Asymmetric Supported BSC-CPW, 115

2.3.2.3 Application of the GBSC-CPW as Single CPW, 117

2.3.2.4 Criteria for the Coplanar Behavior of the Structure, 118

Bibliography and References, 120

3 Coplanar Waveguide Discontinuities 145

3.1 The Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Analysis, 145

3.2 Computation of the Electric Field Strength, 147

3.3 Computation of the Magnetic Field Strength, 150

3.3.1 Convergence and Error Discussion for the Analysis Technique, 152

3.4 Coplanar Waveguide Discontinuities, 154

3.4.1 Modeling the Discontinuities, 156

3.4.2 Extraction of the Model Parameters, 157

3.5 Description of Coplanar Waveguide Discontinuities, 161

3.5.1 The Coplanar Open End, 162

3.5.2 The Coplanar Waveguide Short-Circuited End, 167

3.5.3 The Gap in a Coplanar Waveguide, 169

3.5.4 The Coplanar Waveguide Step, 175

3.5.5 Air Bridges in Coplanar Waveguides, 183

3.5.6 The Coplanar Waveguide Bend, 192

3.5.7 The Coplanar Waveguide T-Junction, 202

3.5.7.1 Analysis of the Odd-Mode Excitation, 221

3.5.8 The Coplanar T-Junction as a Mode Converter, 225

3.5.9 The Coplanar Waveguide Crossing, 234

Bibliography and References, 241

4 Coplanar Lumped Elements 249

4.1 Introduction, 249

4.2 The Coplanar Interdigital Capacitor, 250

4.2.1 The Lumped Element Modeling Approach, 250

4.2.2 Enhancement of the Interdigital Capacitor Model for Application at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies, 269

4.3 The Coplanar Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) Capacitor, 272

4.4 The Coplanar Spiral Inductor, 276

4.4.1 Enhancement of the Inductor Model for Millimeter-Wave Frequencies, 290

4.4.2 Coupled Coplanar Rectangular Inductors, 291

4.5 The Coplanar Rectangular Spiral Transformer, 295

4.6 The Coplanar Thin-Film Resistor, 303

Bibliography and References, 304

5 Coplanar Element Library and Circuit Design Program 309

5.1 Introduction, 309

5.2 Modeling, Convergence, and Accuracy, 312

5.3 Overview on Coplan for ADSTM, 315

5.3.1 Data Items, 317

5.3.2 Library Elements, 319

5.4 Cache Management, 321

5.5 Layout, 321

5.6 Coplanar Data Items, 322

5.6.1 Overview, 322

5.6.2 Description of the Data Items, 324

5.6.2.1 Coplanar Substrate Data Definition C_SUB, 325

5.6.2.2 Coplanar Line-Type Data Definition C_LINTYP, 327

5.6.2.3 Coplanar Coupled Lines Data Definition C_NL_TYP, 328

5.6.2.4 Coplanar Bridge-Type Data Definition C_AIRTYP, 331

5.6.2.5 Coplanar Grid Data Definition C_GRID, 333

5.6.2.6 Process (Foundry) Used for Fabrication C_PROCES, 335

5.6.2.7 Technological Data Definition (Default Foundry) C_TECH, 336

5.6.2.8 Layer Data Definition (Default Foundry) C_LAYER, 338

5.7 The Coplanar Components and Their Models, 339

5.7.1 Coplanar Waveguide RF-Port C_PORT, 341

5.7.2 Coplanar Transmission Line C_LIN, 344

5.7.3 Coplanar Inter-Metal via (No Step) Connection C_METIA, 345

5.7.4 Coplanar Resistively Loaded Transmission Line C_TFG, 347

5.7.5 Coplanar MIM-Capacitor to Ground C_CAPLIN, 349

5.7.6 Coplanar Open-Ended Transmission Line C_OPEN, 351

5.7.7 Coplanar Short-Circuited Transmission Line C_SHORT, 353

5.7.8 Gap in a Coplanar Transmission Line C_GAP, 354

5.7.9 Step in a Coplanar Transmission Line C_STEP, 355

5.7.10 Coplanar Waveguide Taper C_TAPER, 357

5.7.11 Coplanar Air Bridges C_AIR, 359

5.7.12 Bend in a Coplanar Transmission Line C_BEND, 360

5.7.13 T-Junction in Coplanar Transmission Lines C_TEE, 362

5.7.14 Crossing of Coplanar Transmission Lines C_CROSS, 364

5.7.15 Coplanar Interdigital Capacitor C_IDC, 366

5.7.16 Coplanar Rectangular Inductor C_RIND, 368

5.7.17 Coplanar Thin-Film Resistor C_TFR, 370

5.7.18 Coplanar Metal–Insulator–Metal Capacitor C_MIM, 371

Bibliography, 373

6 Coplanar Filters and Couplers 377

6.1 Coplanar Lumped Element Filters, 377

6.1.1 The Coplanar Spiral Inductor as a Filter, 377

6.1.2 Design and Realization, 379

6.1.3 Results, 381

6.1.4 Phase-Shifting Filter Circuits, 386

6.2 Coplanar Passive Lumped-Element Band-Pass Filters, 388

6.2.1 Theoretical Background, 389

6.2.2 Properties of the Coplanar Hybrid Band-Pass Filters, 390

6.3 Special Coplanar Waveguide Filters, 392

6.3.1 The Coplanar Band-Reject Filter, 394

6.3.1.1 The Hybrid Band-Reject Filter, 394

6.3.1.2 The Monolithic Band-Reject Filter, 395

6.3.2 Coplanar Millimeter-Wave Filters, 398

6.4 Coplanar Edge-Coupled Line Structures, 404

6.4.1 Verification of Coupling Between Coupled Coplanar Waveguides, 405

6.4.2 End-Coupled Coplanar Line Structures, 409

6.4.3 Coplanar Waveguide End-Coupled to an Orthogonal Coplanar Waveguide, 411

6.5 Coupled Coplanar Waveguide Filters and Couplers, 414

6.5.1 Interdigital Filter Design, 414

6.5.2 Coplanar Waveguide Couplers, 420

6.6 Coplanar MMIC Wilkinson Couplers, 426

6.6.1 Conventional Wilkinson Couplers, 427

6.6.2 Wilkinson Couplers with Discrete Elements, 427

6.6.3 MMIC Applicable Wilkinson Couplers with Coplanar Lumped Elements, 429

6.6.4 Wilkinson Coupler in Coplanar Waveguide Technique for Millimeter-Wave Frequencies, 431

Bibliography and References, 434

7 Coplanar Microwave Integrated Circuits 439

7.1 Introduction, 439

7.1.1 The Effect of the Shielding on Modeling, 440

7.1.2 The Waveguide Properties, 441

7.2 Coplanar Transistors and Coplanar Switches, 444

7.2.1 Active Power Dividers and Combiners and Switches, 444

7.2.1.1 Power Dividers and Combiners, 444

7.2.1.2 Fundamental Coplanar Switch Circuits, 446

7.2.1.3 Results and Measurements, 447

7.2.1.4 Device Scaling, 450

7.2.1.5 Design and Realization of Coplanar RF Switches, 453

7.3 Coplanar Microwave Active Filters, 457

7.3.1 Introduction, 457

7.3.2 The Coplanar Active Inductor, 458

7.3.3 The First-Order Active Coplanar Band-Pass Filter, 460

7.3.4 The Fixed Center Frequency Second-Order Active Filter, 460

7.3.5 The Coplanar Active Tunable Filter, 463

7.4 Coplanar Microwave Amplifiers, 471

7.4.1 Coplanar Microwave Amplifiers in Waveguide Design, 471

7.4.1.1 Introduction, 471

7.4.1.2 Circuit Design and Technological Aspects, 472

7.4.1.3 Results and Comparison with Measurements, 475

7.4.2 Coplanar Lumped-Element MMIC Amplifiers, 477

7.4.2.1 Introduction, 477

7.4.2.2 MMIC Design and Results, 478

7.4.3 Influence of the Backside Metalization on the Design of a Coplanar Low-Noise Amplifier, 481

7.4.3.1 Modeling the Transistor and Its Noise Properties, 481

7.4.3.2 The Coplanar LNA Design, 484

7.4.3.3 Simulation Results, 484

7.4.3.4 Measurement Results, 485

7.4.4 Miniaturized Ka-band MMIC High-Gain Medium-Power Amplifier in Coplanar Waveguide Technique, 488

7.4.4.1 Introduction, 488

7.4.4.2 MMIC Design and Results, 488

7.5 Coplanar Electronic Circulators, 491

7.6 Coplanar Frequency Doublers, 495

7.6.1 Different Realization Concepts of FET Frequency Doublers, 495

7.6.1.1 The Single-Device FET Frequency Doubler, 495

7.6.1.2 The Balanced (Push–Push) FET Frequency Doubler, 495

7.6.1.3 The Wideband FET Frequency Doubler, 497

7.6.2 Realization of Coplanar Frequency Doublers, 497

7.6.2.1 The Coplanar Balanced Hybrid MIC Frequency Doubler, 498

7.6.2.2 The Coplanar Balanced Monolithic MIC Frequency Doubler, 500

7.6.3 A Coplanar Times Five Frequency Multiplier, 504

7.7 Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Oscillators in Coplanar Technology, 508

7.7.1 Coplanar Microwave Oscillators, 508

7.7.2 A 5-GHz Coplanar Voltage-Controlled Oscillator, 514

Bibliography and References, 518

Index 537

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