This book has its origins in a resolution passed by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations in July 1975 requesting the Secretary-General to prepare a 10 to 15 year evaluation of the prospects for copper. The investigation was carried out by the Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport, with the help of consultants, and the results summarized in a report submitted to the Committee on Natural Re sources, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council, in May 1977. This book presents the findings of that investigation in greater detail, draws out the impli cations of those findings more fully, and describes the methodology employed more completely than was possible in the earlier report. It also incorporates the results of additional work carried out by the authors since the spring of 1977 so as to take into account recent developments as well as comments received from the participants at the meeting of the Committee on Natural Resources where the summary paper was re viewed. Although all three authors are collectively, and individually, responsible for the whole book, Mr. Wolfgang Gluschke assumes a special responsibility for Chapters IV, V and VI, Mr. Joseph F. Shaw for Chapters I, II, and VIII, and Mr. Bension Varon for Chapters III and VII. The work on the book was undertaken under the general supervision and guidance of Mr. Varon, then Assistant Director ofthe United Nations Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport.
Table of ContentsI A Perspective on the Industry.- 1. The Copper Process: From Raw Material to Finished Product.- 2. The Geographical Distribution of the Copper Industry and International Trade in Copper.- II The Market for Refined Copper.- 1. Current Institutional Arrangements for Pricing and their Evolution.- 2. Competition in the Market for Refined Copper.- III Demand: End-Uses and Substitution.- 1. The Postwar Trend.- 2. End-uses.- 3. Prospects by Sector.- 4. Substitution.- IV Reserves and Resources.- 1. Geological Characteristics of Copper Deposits.- 2. Concepts and Measurement.- 3. The Data.- 4. Reserve Estimates.- 5. Resources.- 6. The Question of Availability in Perspective.- V Trends and Problems of Capacity Expansion.- 1. Trends in Mining and Processing Technology.- 2. Problems of Measuring Capacity.- 3. Capacity Projections.- VI Investment Costs.- 1. Variations and Trends.- 2. Specific Costs: Illustrations and Comparisons.- 3. Impact of Technology.- VII Secondary Copper.- 1. The Product and the Market.- 2. Processing Costs and Price Structure.- 3. Trends in Scrap Supply and Trade.- 4. Evolution of Government Policies.- 5. A Look at the Future.- VIII Investment: Needs and Policies.- 1. Investment Requirements.- 2. Variations on a Theme.- 3. The Scope for Intergovernmental Policy.- Appendices: A. Ocean Resources of Copper.- B. The Japanese Copper Industry.- C. Statistical Tables.