Interest in the coronaviruses has never been greater. Their economic impact is considerable as they infect humans, livestock, poultry and companion animals. Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) infection of the mouse and rat central nervous systems are the subject of intense study; these investigations are providing insights into the potential role of viruses in human neurological diseases and, more generally, into mechanisms causing neurological damage. The single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of two species of these enveloped viruses (IBV and MHV) have been cloned completely and one of them (lBV) sequenced in its entirety, revealing a genome size of some 27000 nucleotides. This has made possible more incisive investigations into the nature of those polypeptides, encoded by more than half of the genome, which are likely to contribute, in the main, to RNA polymerase/replicase activity. Intriguingly, ribosomal frameshifting is exhibited within the mRNA coding for these polypeptides. The cloning/sequencing phase of coronavirology for which the 1980's will be partly remembered, has provided a sound framework for furthex: studies of the virus structural proteins and also some provocative insights relevant to these studies. The large spike glycoprotein(s), responsible for membrane fusion and bearing important antigenic sites, varies amazingly in length and composition both within as well as between coronavirus species. Receptors on host cells have been identified. The integral membrane glycoprotein (M) has been shown to use internal hydrophobic sequences to direct translocation within membranes.
Table of ContentsRevised Nomenclature for Coronavirus Structural Proteins, mRNAs and Genes.- 1. The Spike (S) Glycoprotein.- Background Paper: Functions of Coronavirus Glycoproteins.- Biosynthesis and Function of the Coronavirus Spike Protein.- Functional Analysis of the Coronavirus MHV-JHM Surface Glycoproteins in Vaccinia Virus Recombinants.- Role of pH in Syncytium Induction and Genome Uncoating of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus (IBV).- Is the 110K Glycoprotein the Only Receptor for MHV and Does Its Expression Determine Species Specificity?.- MHV-Resistant SJL/J Mice Express a Non-Functional Homolog to the MHV Receptor Glycoprotein.- Fc Receptor-like Activity of Mouse Hepatitis Virus E2 Glycoprotein.- Mouse Fibroblast Mutants Selected for Survival Against Mouse Hepatitis Virus Infection Show Increased Resistance to Infection and Virus-induced Cell Fusion.- On the Membrane Cytopathology of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Infection as Probed by a Semi-permeable Translation-inhibiting Drug.- Molecular Characterization of the 229E Strain of Human Coronavirus.- Sequence Analysis of the 3? End (8740 Nucleotides) of BECV Genome; Comparison with Homologous MHV Nucleotide Sequence.- 2. The Haemagglutinin-Esterase (HE) and Membrane (M) Glycoproteins.- Background Paper: Coronavirus M and HE: Two Peculiar Glycoproteins.- Structure and Expression of the Bovine Coronavirus Hemagglutinin Protein.- The Haemagglutinin of Bovine Coronavirus Exhibits Significant Similarity to the Haemagglutinin of Type C Influenza Virus.- Isolation and Characterization of the Acetylesterase of Haemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus (HEV).- Differential Reactivity of Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) and Influenza C Virus with N-Acetyl-9-O-Acetylneuraminic Acid (NEU5,9AC2)-Containing Receptors.- Expression of the Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus M Protein.- Expression of MHV-A59. M Glycoprotein: Effects of Deletions on Membrane Integration and Intracellular Transport.- 3. B- and T-Cell Epitopes of The Structural Proteins.- Background Paper: Mapping Epitopes on Coronavirus Glycoproteins.- Binding of Antibodies that Strongly Neutralise Infectious Bronchitis Virus is Dependent on the Glycosylation of the Viral Peplomer Protein.- Enteric Coronavirus TGEV: Mapping of Four Major Antigenic Determinants in the Amino Half of Peplomer Protein E2.- Location of Antigenic Sites of the S-Glycoprotein of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus and their Conservation in Coronaviruses.- Topological and Functional Analysis of Epitopes on the S(E2) and HE(E3) Glycoproteins of Bovine Enteric Coronavirus.- Linear Neutralizing Epitopes on the Peplomer Protein of Coronaviruses.- The Nucleocapsid Protein of IBV Comprises Immunodominant Determinants Recognized by T-Cells.- 4: Expression and Immunogenicity of The Structural Proteins.- Background Paper: Progress Towards a Coronavirus Recombinant DNA Vaccine.- Protection of Mice from Lethal Coronavirus MHV-A59 Infection by Monoclonal Affinity-Purified Spike Glycoprotein.- Expression of the Spike Protein of Murine Coronavirus JHM Using a Baculovirus Vector.- Immunogenicity of Recombinant Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Spike Protein in Mice and Kittens.- Expression of TGEV Structural Genes in Virus Vectors.- 5: TBE Nucleocapsid (N) Protein.- Background Paper: Functions of the Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein.- Structure and Function Studies of the Nucleocapsid Protein of Mouse Hepatitis Virus.- MHV Leader RNA Secondary Structure Affects Binding to the Nucleocapsid Protein.- In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Demyelinating Disease: A Phosphoprotein Phosphatase in Host Cell Endosomes Dephosphorylating the Nucleocapsid Protein of Coronavirus JHM.- In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Demyelinating Disease: Possible Relationship Between Induction of Regulatory Subunit from cAMP Dependent Protein Kinase and Inhibition of JHMV Replication in Cultured Oligodendrocytes.- 6: The Polymerase and Other Non-Structural Proteins.- A Ribosomal Frameshift Signal in the Polymerase-Encoding Region of the IBV Genome.- Products of the Polymerase-Encoding Region of the Coronavirus IBV.- Murine Coronavirus Gene 1 Polyprotein Contains an Autoproteolytic Activity.- Detection of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Nonstructural Proteins Using Antisera Directed Against Bacterial Viral Fusion Proteins.- Nucleotide Sequence of the E2-Peplomer Protein Gene and Partial Nucleotide Sequence of the Upstream Polymerase Gene of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (Miller Strain).- The Polymerase Gene of Corona- and Toroviruses: Evidence for an Evolutionary Relationship.- Characterization of the MHV-JHM Non-Structural Protein Encoded by mRNA 2.- 7: Transcription and Replication.- Background Paper: Transcription and Replication of Coronavirus RNA: a 1989 Update.- Coronavirus Subgenoraic Replicons as a Mechanism for mRNA Amplification.- Studies of Coronavirus DI RNA Replication Using In Vitro Constructed DI cDNA Clones.- Murine Coronavirus Temperature Sensitive Mutants.- Genomic Organisation of a Virulent Isolate of Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus.- 8: Aspects of Coronavirus Variation and Evolufion.- Background Paper: Aspects of Coronavirus Evolution.- Molecular Basis of the Variation Exhibited by Avian Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus (IBV).- Sequence Comparisons of the 3? End of the Genomes of Five Strains of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus.- Selection of Variants of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Showing Tropism for Different Organs.- Monoclonal Antibody-Selected Variants of MHV-4 Contain Substitutions and Deletions in the E2 Spike Glycoprotein.- RNA Sequence Analysis of the E2 Genes of Wildtype and Neuroattenuated Mutants of MHV-4 Reveals a Hypervariable Domain.- Characterization of Attenuated Mutants of MHV3: Importance of the E2 Protein in Organ Tropism and Infection of Isolated Liver Cells.- Murine Hepatitis Virus JHM Variants Isolated from Wistar Furth Rats with Viral-Induced Neurological Disease.- 9: Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus.- Background Paper: The Appearance of the Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus has Created New Problems and Perspectives.- Induction of Milk IgA Antibodies by Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus Infection.- Sites of Replication of a Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus in 5-Week-01d Pigs with or Without Maternal Antibodies.- Infection with a New Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus in Denmark: Serologic Differentiation from Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Using Monoclonal Antibodies.- Molecular Aspects of the Relationship of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) with Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus (PRCV).- 10: Turkey and Bovine Coronaviruses.- Characterization and Location of the Structural Polypeptides of Turkey Enteric Coronavirus Using Monoclonal Antibodies and Enzymatic Treatments.- Evidence of Close Relatedness Between Turkey and Bovine Coronaviruses.- A Comparison of Bovine Coronavirus Strains Using Monoclonal Antibodies.- Analysis of Different Probe-Labeling Systems for Detection by Hybridization of Bovine Coronavirus.- 11: Non-Neurological Diseases.- Canine Coronavirus Infection in Cats; a Possible Role in Feline Infectious Peritonitis.- Characterization of an Attenuated Temperature Sensitive Feline Infectious Peritonitis Vaccine Virus.- Investigations into Resistance of Chicken Lines to Infection with Infectious Bronchitis Virus.- Comparison of the Replication of Distinct Strains of Human Coronavirus 0C43 in Organotypic Human Colon Cells(Caco-2) and Mouse Intestine.- Detection of Coronavirus RNA in CNS Tissue of Multiple Sclerosis and Control Patients.- Rabbit Dilated Cardiomyopathy.- Retinopathy Following Intravitreal Injection of Mice with MHV Strain JHM.- Reproductive Disorders in Female SHR Rats Infected with Sialodacryoadenitis Virus.- Mechanism of Protective Effect of Prostaglandin E in Murine Hepatitis Virus Strain 3 Infection: Effects on Macrophage Production of Tumour Necrosis Factor, Procoagulant Activity and Leukotriene B4.- Mouse Hepatitis Virus 3 Pathogenicity and B and T Lymphotropisms.- 12: Neurological Consequences of Murine Hepatitis Virus Infection of Mice.- Background Paper: Advances in the Study of MHV Infection of Mice.- T Cell-Mediated Clearance of JHMV from the Central Nervous System.- Immunopathogenesis of Demyelination Induced by MHV-4.- Localization of Virus and Antibody Response in Mice Infected Persistently with MHV-JHM.- Regulation of MHC Class I and II Antigens of Cerebral Endothelial Cells and Astrocytes Following MHV-4 Infection.- Mouse Hepatitis Virus A59 Increases Steady-State Levels of mRNAs Encoding Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens.- Vacuolar Degeneration Induced by JHM-CC Virus in the CNS of Cyclophosphamide-Treated Mice.- Vacuolar Encephalomyelopathy in Mice Induced by Intracerebral Inoculation with a Coronavirus JHM-CC Strain.- Difference in Response of Susceptible Mouse Strains to a Small Plaque Mutant (JHM-CC) of Mouse Coronavirus.- 13: Neurological Consequences Of Murine Hepatitis Virus Infection of Rats.- Background Paper: On the Role of the Immune Response in the Course of Coronavirus JHM-Induced Encephalomyelitides in Mice and Rats.- Quantitation, Phenotypic Characterization and In Situ Localization of Lymphoid Cells in the Brain Parenchyma of Rats with Differing Susceptibility to Coronavirus JHM-Induced Encephalomyelitis.- Coronavirus Induced Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis in Rats: Immunopathological Aspects of Viral Persistency.- Astrocytes as Antigen Presenting Cells for Primary and Secondary T Cell Responses: Effect of Astrocyte Infection by Murine Hepatitis Virus.- Epigenetic Factors Influencing the Morphogenesis of Primary Neural Cell Cultures and the Concomitant Effects on Establishing JHMV Infections.