The Second Edition of Correctional Theory: Context and Consequences continues to identify and evaluate the major competing theories used to guide the goals, policies, and practices of the correctional system. Authors Francis T. Cullen and Cheryl Lero Jonson demonstrate that changes in theories can legitimize new ways of treating and punishing offenders, and they help readers understand how transformations in the social and political context of U.S. society impact correctional theory and policy. Designed to motivate readers to become sophisticated consumers of correctional information, the book emphasizes the importance of using evidence-based information to guide decisions, rather than relying on nonscientific commonsense or ideology-based beliefs.
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About the Author
Francis T. Cullen is Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus and Senior Research Associate in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati, where he also holds a joint appointment in sociology. He received a Ph.D. (1979) in sociology and education from Columbia University. Professor Cullen has published over 300 works in the areas of criminological theory, corrections, white-collar crime, public opinion, and the measurement of sexual victimization. He is author of Rethinking Crime and Deviance Theory: The Emergence of a Structuring Tradition and is coauthor of Reaffirming Rehabilitation, Corporate Crime Under Attack: The Ford Pinto Case and Beyond, Criminology, Combating Corporate Crime: Local Prosecutors at Work, Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The Sexual Victimization of College Women, Correctional Theory: Context and Consequences. Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Supervising Offenders in the Community, and Communities and Crime: An Enduring American Challenge. He also is coeditor of Criminological Theory: Past to PresentEssential Readings, Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory, The Origins of American Criminology, the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory, The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory, The Oxford Handbook of White-Collar Crime, The American Prison: Imagining a Different Future, Challenging Criminological Theory: The Legacy of Ruth Rosner Kornhauser, Sisters in Crime Revisited: Bringing Gender Into Criminology, Delinquency and Drift Revisited: The Criminology of David Matza and Beyond, Deterrence, Choice, and Crime: Contemporary Perspectives. Professor Cullen is a Past President of the American Society of Criminology and of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. In 2010, he received the ASC Edwin H. Sutherland Award. In 2013, he was honored by his alma mater, Bridgewater State University, with a Doctorate in Public Service.
Cheryl Lero Jonson is Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Xavier University. She received a Ph.D. (2010) in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati. She is coeditor of The Origins of American Criminology, Sisters in Crime Revisited: Bringing Gender into Criminology, The American Prison: Imagining a Different Future, and Deterrence, Choice, and Crime: Contemporary Perspectives. Her published work has appeared in Criminology and Public Policy, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, and Victims and Offenders. Her current research interests include correctional policy, the impact of incarceration on recidivism, the use of incentives to downsize American prisons, inmate adjustment to conditions of confinement, strategies to prevent school shootings, and work reactions among criminal justice employees. From 2012 to 2015, she served as an Executive Counselor of the Corrections Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.
Table of ContentsPrefacePART I. Crisis in American CorrectionsCHAPTER 1. From Theory to Policy: Evidence-Based Corrections Theories of Corrections Six Theories in Brief Utility, Opinion, and Evidence Evidence-Based Corrections Conclusion: What’s Ahead?CHAPTER 2. Correctional Theory in Crisis: America’s Changing Context What Is Rehabilitation? The Rise of the Rehabilitative Ideal Attacking Rehabilitation The “Nothing Works” Doctrine: Martinson and Beyond Conclusion: Crisis in Correctional TheoryPART II. The Punishment ResponseCHAPTER 3. Just Deserts: Doing Justice or Getting Tough? The Concepts of Retribution and Just Deserts: Punishing the Crime Retribution: Just and Painful Four Problems for Retribution The Justice Model: Restraining State Discretion What Went Wrong? Winning the Battle but Losing the War Conclusion: The Need for Crime ControlCHAPTER 4. Deterrence: Scaring Offenders Straight The Concept of Deterrence Is Deterrence a “Conservative” Theory? The Theoretical Assumptions of Deterrence Studying Whether Deterrence Works: Assessing Types of Evidence Policy Changes That Increase Punishment Macro-Level Studies of Punishment and Crime Rates Perceptual Deterrence Studies Deterrence in the Community The Effects of Imprisonment Conclusion: The Limits of DeterrenceCHAPTER 5. Incapacitation: Locking Up the Wicked Too Many Prisoners More Than Enough Criminals The Concept of Incapacitation Estimating the Incapacitation Effect: Studying Individual Offenders Estimating the Incapacitation Effect: Macro-Level Studies Conclusion: Compared to What?PART III. The Social Welfare ResponseCHAPTER 6. Restorative Justice: Reintegrative Shaming The Concept of Restorative Justice The Appeal of Restorative Justice Three Problems Does Restorative Justice Work? Conclusion: The Limits of HarmCHAPTER 7. Rehabilitation: What Works to Change Offenders The Concept of Rehabilitation Knowing What Works Challenging Nothing Works: Narrative Reviews Challenging Nothing Works: Meta-Analytic Reviews What Does Not Work What Does Work: Principles of Effective Intervention What Else Might Work? Conclusion: Reaffirming RehabilitationPART IV. Extending the Vision of CorrectionsCHAPTER 8. Reentry: Saving Offenders from a Life in Crime From Parole to Reentry The Reentry Problem Reentry Programs The Effectiveness Problem Two Things to Keep in Mind Conclusion: Saving Offenders From a Life in CrimeCHAPTER 9. Early Intervention: Saving Children From a Life in Crime Lessons From Childhood Criminology The Need for Early Intervention Five Programs That WorkAt Least When Done Right Two More Reasons to Support Early Intervention Conclusion: Beyond Adult-Limited CorrectionsCHAPTER 10. Six Correctional Lessons: Choosing Our Future Three Themes Four Lessons Conclusion: Choosing Our FutureReferencesIndexAbout the Authors