Craniosynostosis and rare craniofacial clefts represent overlapping spectra of craniofacial disorders that present significant multi-system challenges in reconstructive surgery. Caused by the premature fusion of cranial bones, craniosynostosis may occur in isolation or as a part of a syndrome. The consequences of untreated craniosynostosis are significant to the neuropsychological development, as well as to the overall appearance of the child. Rare craniofacial clefts, unlike the common cleft lip and palate, frequently affect multiple functional units of the face. Similar to craniosynostosis, rare clefts may occur in isolation or as a manifestation of a rare craniofacial syndrome. For both entities, reconstructive complexity may range from routine to extraordinarily complex requiring multiple surgeries with the involvement of multiple disciplines. In the ensuing chapters, 27 authors from the United States and abroad share their expertise on the current knowledge in craniosynostosis and rare craniofacial clefts. From the disciplines of plastic surgery/craniofacial surgery, neurosurgery, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, and orthodontics, comprehensive reviews of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, syndromic craniosynostosis, genetic advances in craniosynostosis, orthodontic perspectives in dental rehabilitation, ophthalmologic perspectives in craniosynostosis, minimally invasive techniques, rare craniofacial clefts, treatment of craniofacial microsomia with an emphasis on microtia and atresia, treatment of pediatric facial nerve paralysis, and Treacher Collins syndrome are detailed.