Created Equal: A History of the United States / Edition 3

Created Equal: A History of the United States / Edition 3

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Created Equal: A History of the United States / Edition 3

With its sweeping, inclusive view of American history, Created Equal emphasizes social history—including the lives and labors of women, immigrants, working people, and minorities in all regions of the country—while delivering the familiar chronology of political and economic history. By integrating the stories of a variety of groups and individuals into the historical narrative, Created Equal helps connect the nation’s past with the student’s present.

Created Equal explores an expanding notion of equality and American identityone that encompasses the stories of diverse groups of people, territorial growth and expansion, the rise of the middle class, technological innovation and economic development, and engagement with other nations and peoples of the world.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205585816
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/29/2008
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 1088
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.70(d)

Table of Contents

Detailed Contents


Figures and Tables




Meet the Authors

A Conversation with the Authors


Part One. North American Founders

1. First Founders

Ancient America

The Question of Origins

The Archaic World

The Rise of Maize Agriculture

A Thousand Years of Change: 500 to 1500

Valleys of the Sun: The Mesoamerican Empires

The Anasazi: Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde

The Mississippians: Cahokia and Moundville

Linking the Continents

Oceanic Travel: The Norse and the Chinese

Portugal and the Beginnings of Globalization

Looking for the Indies: Da Gama and Columbus

In the Wake of Columbus: Competition and Exchange

Spain Enters the Americas

The Devastation of the Indies

The Spanish Conquest of the Aztec

Magellan and Cortés Prompt New Searches

Three New Views of North America

The Protestant Reformation Plays Out in America

Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Europe

Competing Powers Lay Claim to Florida

The Background of English Expansion

Lost Colony: The Roanoke Experience


Envisioning History The World as a Clover: Mapping for Art, Religion, or Science

The Wider World The Lateen Rig: A Triangular Sail That Helped to Conquer Oceans

Interpreting History “These Gods That We Worship Give Us Everything We Need”

2. European Footholds in North America, 1600–1660

Spain’s Ocean-Spanning Reach

Vizcaíno in California and Japan

Oñate Creates a Spanish Foothold in the Southwest

New Mexico Survives: New Flocks Among Old Pueblos

Conversion and Rebellion in Spanish Florida

France and Holland: Overseas Competition for Spain

The Founding of New France

Competing for the Beaver Trade

A Dutch Colony on the Hudson River

“All Sorts of Nationalities”: Diverse New Amsterdam

English Beginnings on the Atlantic Coast

The Virginia Company and Jamestown

“Starving Time” and Seeds of Representative Government

Launching the Plymouth Colony

The Puritan Experiment

Formation of the Massachusetts Bay Company

“We Shall Be as a City upon a Hill”

Dissenters: Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson

Expansion and Violence: The Pequot War

The Chesapeake Bay Colonies

The Demise of the Virginia Company

Maryland: The Catholic Refuge

The Dwellings of English Newcomers

The Lure of Tobacco


Envisioning History A Roof Overhead: Early Chesapeake Housing

The Wider World Freedom of the Seas: Grotius and Maritime Law

Interpreting History Anne Bradstreet: “The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung Up in America”

3. Controlling the Edges of the Continent, 1660–1715

France and the American Interior

The Rise of the Sun King

Exploring the Mississippi Valley

King William’s War in the Northeast

Founding the Louisiana Colony

The Spanish Empire on the Defensive

The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico

Navajo and Spanish on the Southwestern Frontier

Borderland Conflict in Texas and Florida

England’s American Empire Takes Shape

Monarchy Restored and Navigation Controlled

Fierce Anglo-Dutch Competition

The New Restoration Colonies

The Contrasting Worlds of Pennsylvania and Carolina

Bloodshed in the English Colonies: 1670–1690

Metacom’s War in New England

Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia

The “Glorious Revolution” in England

The “Glorious Revolution” in America

Consequences of War and Growth: 1690–1715

Salem’s Wartime Witch Hunt

The Uneven Costs of War

Storm Clouds in the South


Envisioning History La Salle’s Ship, the Belle, Is Raised from a Watery Grave

The Wider World William Dampier: The World Became His University

Interpreting History “Marry or do not marry”

Part Two. A Century of Colonial Expansion to 1775

4. African Enslavement: The Terrible Transformation

The Descent into Race Slavery

The Caribbean Precedent

Ominous Beginnings

Alternative Sources of Labor

The Fateful Transition

The Growth of Slave Labor Camps

Black Involvement in Bacon’s Rebellion

The Rise of a Slaveholding Tidewater Elite

Closing the Vicious Circle in the Chesapeake

England Enters the Atlantic Slave Trade

Trade Ties Between Europe and Africa

The Slave Trade on the African Coast

The Middle Passage Experience

Saltwater Slaves Arrive in America

Survival in a Strange New Land

African Rice Growers in South Carolina

Patterns of Resistance

A Wave of Rebellion

The Transformation Completed

Second Class Status in the North

Uncertain Voices of Dissent

Is This Consistent “with Christianity or Common Justice”?

Oglethorpe’s Antislavery Experiment

The End of Equality in Georgia


Envisioning History Drums and Banjos: African Sounds in English Colonies

The Wider World The Odyssey of Job Ben Solomon

Interpreting History “Releese Us out of This Cruell Bondegg”

5. An American Babel, 1713–1763

New Cultures on the Western Plains

The Spread of the Horse

The Rise of the Comanche

Creation of Comanchería on the Southern Plains

The Expansion of the Sioux

Britain’s Mainland Colonies: A New Abundance of People

Population Growth on the Home Front

“Packed Like Herrings”: Arrivals from Abroad

Non-English Newcomers in the British Colonies

The Varied Economic Landscape

Sources of Gain in Carolina and Georgia

Chesapeake Bay’s Tobacco Economy

New England Takes to the Sea

Economic Expansion in the Middle Colonies

Matters of Faith: The Great Awakening

Seeds of Religious Toleration

The Onset of the Great Awakening: Pietism and George Whitefield

“The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry”

The Consequences of the Great Awakening

The French Lose a North American Empire

Prospects and Problems Facing French Colonists

British Settlers Confront the Threat from France

An American Fight Becomes a Global Conflict

Quebec Taken and North America Refashioned


Envisioning History Putting Mary Jemison on a Pedestal

The Wider World Solving the Problem of Longitude
Interpreting History “Pastures Can Be Found Almost Everywhere”: Joshua von Kocherthal Recruits Germans to Carolina

6. The Limits of Imperial Control, 1763–1775

New Challenges to Spain’s Expanded Empire

Pacific Exploration, Hawaiian Contact

The Russians Lay Claim to Alaska

Spain Colonizes the California Coast

New Challenges to Britain’s Expanded Empire

Midwestern Lands and Pontiac’s War for Indian Independence

Grenville’s Effort at Reform

The Stamp Act Imposed

The Stamp Act Resisted

“The Unconquerable Rage of the People”

Power Corrupts: An English Framework for Revolution

Americans Practice Vigilance and Restraint

Rural Unrest: Tenant Farmers and Regulators

A Conspiracy of Corrupt Ministers?

The Townshend Duties

Virtuous Resistance: Boycotting British Goods

The Boston Massacre

The Gaspée Affair Prompts Committees of Correspondence

Launching a Revolution

The Tempest over Tea

The Intolerable Acts

From Words to Action


Envisioning History William Hogarth’s “The Times,” 1762

The Wider World “Farther than Any Other Man”: Cook’s Second Voyage

Interpreting History “Squeezed and Oppressed”: A 1768 Petition by 30 Regulators

Part Three. The Unfinished Revolution, 1775–1803

7. Revolutionaries at War, 1775–1783

“Things Are Now Come to That Crisis”

The Second Continental Congress Takes Control

“Liberty to Slaves”

The Struggle to Control Boston

Declaring Independence

“Time to Part”

The British Attack New York

“Victory or Death”: A Desperate Gamble Pays Off

The Struggle to Win French Support

Breakdown in British Planning

Saratoga Tips the Balance

Forging an Alliance with France

Legitimate States, a Respectable Military

The Articles of Confederation

Creating State Constitutions

Tensions in the Military Ranks

Shaping a Diverse Army

The War at Sea

The Long Road to Yorktown

Indian Warfare and Frontier Outposts

The Unpredictable War in the South

The Final Campaign

Winning the Peace


Envisioning History Benjamin Franklin: The Diplomat in a Beaver Hat

The Wider World The Journey of Tom and Sally Peters

Interpreting History “Revoking Those Sacred Trusts Which Are Violated”: Proclaiming Independence in South Carolina, May 1776

8. New Beginnings: The 1780s

Beating Swords into Plowshares

Will the Army Seize Control?

The Society of the Cincinnati

Renaming the Landscape

An Independent Culture

Competing for Control of the Mississippi Valley

Disputed Territory: The Old Southwest

Southern Claims and Indian Resistance

“We Are Now Masters”: The Old Northwest

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Debtor and Creditor, Taxpayer and Bondholder

New Sources of Wealth

“Tumults in New England”

Shay’s Rebellion: The Massachusetts Regulation

Drafting a New Constitution

Philadelphia: A Gathering of Like-Minded Men

Compromise and Consensus

Questions of Representation

Slavery: The Deepest Dilemma

Ratification and the Bill of Rights

The Campaign for Ratification

Dividing and Conquering the Anti-Federalists

Adding a Bill of Rights


Envisioning History “Grand Federal Processions”
The Wider World John Ledyard’s Wildly Ambitious Plan

Interpreting History Demobilization: “Turned Adrift Like Old Worn-Out Horses”

9. Revolutionary Legacies, 1789–1803

Competing Political Visions in the New Nation

Federalism and Democratic-Republicanism in Action

Planting the Seeds of Industry

Echoes of the American Revolution: The Whiskey Rebellion

Securing Peace Abroad, Suppressing Dissent at Home

People of Color: New Freedoms, New Struggles

Blacks in the North

Manumissions in the South

Continuity and Change in the West

Indian Wars in the Great Lakes Region

Patterns of Indian Acculturation

Land Speculation and Slavery

Shifting Social Identities in the Post-Revolutionary Era

The Search for Common Ground

Artisan-Politicians and Menial Laborers

“Republican Mothers” and Other Well-Off Women

A Loss of Political Influence: The Fate of Nonelite Women

The Election of 1800

The Enigmatic Thomas Jefferson

Protecting and Expanding the National Interest


Envisioning History President-Elect Washington is Greeted by the Women and Girls of Trenton, New Jersey

The Wider World Comparative Measures of Equality in the Post-Revolutionary World

Interpreting History A Farmer Worries about the Power of “the Few”

Part Four. Expanding the Boundaries of Freedom and Slavery, 1804–1848

10. Defending and Expanding the New Nation, 1804–1818

The British Menace

The Embargo of 1807

On the Brink of War

The War of 1812

Pushing North

Fighting on Many Fronts

An Uncertain Victory

The “Era of Good Feelings”?

Praise and Respect for Veterans After the War

A Thriving Economy

Transformations in the Workplace

The Market Revolution

The Rise of the Cotton Plantation Economy

Regional Economies of the South

Black Family Life and Labor

Resistance to Slavery


Envisioning History A Government Agent Greets a Group of Creek Indians

The Wider World Which Nations Transported Slaves in 1800?

Interpreting History Cherokee Women Petition Against Further Land Sales to Whites in 1817

11. Society and Politics in the “Age of the Common Man,” 1819–1832

The Politics Behind Western Migration

The Missouri Compromise

Ways West: The Erie Canal

Spreading American Cultureand Slavery

Migration and Its Effects on the Western Environment

The Panic of 1819 and the Plight of Western Debtors

The Monroe Doctrine

Andrew Jackson’s Rise to Power

Federal Authority and Its Opponents

Judicial Federalism and the Limits of Law

The “Tariff of Abominations”

The “Monster Bank”

Americans in the “Age of the Common Man”

Wards, Workers, and Warriors: Native Americans

Slaves and Free People of Color

Legal and Economic Dependence: The Status of Women

Ties That Bound a Growing Population

New Visions of Religious Faith

Literary and Cultural Values in America


Envisioning History A Rowdy Presidential Inauguration

The Wider World The Global Trade in Cotton

Interpreting History Eulalia Perez Describes Her Work in a California Mission

12. Peoples in Motion, 1832–1848

Mass Migrations

Newcomers from Western Europe

The Slave Trade

Trails of Tears

Migrants in the West

Government-Sponsored Exploration

The Oregon Trail

New Places, New Identities

Changes in the Southern Plains

A Multitude of Voices in the National Political Arena

Whigs, Workers, and the Panic of 1837

Suppression of Antislavery Sentiment

Nativists as a Political Force

Reform Impulses

Public Education

Alternative Visions of Social Life

Networks of Reformers

The United States Extends Its Reach

The Lone Star Republic

The Election of 1844

War with Mexico


Envisioning History An Owner Advertises for His Runaway Slave

The Wider World The U.S. and Other Railroad Networks Compared

Interpreting History Senator John C. Calhoun Warns Against Incorporating Mexico into the United States

Part 5. Disunion and Reunion

13. The Crisis over Slavery, 1848–1860

Regional Economies and Conflicts

Native American Economies Transformed

Land Conflicts in the Southwest

Ethnic and Economic Diversity in the Midwest

Regional Economies of the South

A Free Labor Ideology in the North

Individualism Versus Group Identity

Putting into Practice Ideas of Social Inferiority

“A Teeming Nation”—America in Literature

Challenges to Individualism

The Paradox of Southern Political Power

The Party System in Disarray

The Compromise of 1850

Expansionism and Political Upheaval

The Republican Alliance

The Deepening Conflict over Slavery

The Rising Tide of Violence

The Dred Scott Decision

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Harpers Ferry and the Presidential Election of 1860


Envisioning History An Artist Renders County Election Day in the 1850s

The Wider World When Was Slavery Abolished?

Interpreting History Professor Howe on the Subordination of Women

14. “To Fight to Gain a Country”: The Civil War

Mobilization for War, 1861–1862

The Secession Impulse

Preparing to Fight

Barriers to Southern Mobilization

Indians in the Service of the Confederacy

The Ethnic Confederacy

The Course of War, 1862–1864

The Republicans’ War

The Ravages of War

The Emancipation Proclamation

Persistent Obstacles to the Confederacy’s Grand Strategy

The Other War: African American Struggles for Liberation

The Unfolding of Freedom

Enemies Within the Confederacy

The Ongoing Fight Against Prejudice

Battle Fronts and Home Fronts in 1863

Disaffection in the Confederacy

The Tide Turns Against the South

Civil Unrest in the North

The Desperate South

The Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy, 1864–1865

“Hard War” Toward African Americans and Indians

“Father Abraham”

Sherman’s March from Atlanta to the Sea

The Last Days of the Confederacy


Interpreting History A Virginia Slaveholder Objects to the Impressment of Slaves

Envisioning History A Civil War Encampment

The Wider World Deaths of Americans in Principal Wars, 1775-1991

15. Consolidating a Triumphant Union, 1865–1877

The Struggle over the South

Wartime Preludes to Postwar Policies

Presidential Reconstruction, 1865–1867

The Southern Postwar Labor Problem

Building Free Communities

Landscapes and Soundscapes of Freedom

Congressional Reconstruction: The Radicals’ Plan

The Remarkable Career of Blanche K. Bruce

Claiming Territory for the Union

Federal Military Campaigns Against Western Indians

The Postwar Western Labor Problem

Land Use in an Expanding Nation

Buying Territory for the Union

The Republican Vision and Its Limits

Postbellum Origins of the Woman Suffrage Movement

Workers’ Organizations

Political Corruption and the Decline of Republican Idealism


Envisioning History Two Artists Memorialize the Battle of Little Big Horn

The Wider World When Did Women Get the Vote?

Interpreting History A Southern Labor Contract

Part Six. The Emergence of Modern America, 1877–1900

16. Standardizing the Nation: Innovations in Technology, Business, and Culture, 1877–1890

The New Shape of Business

New Systems and Machines—and Their Price

Alterations in the Natural Environment

Innovations in Financing and Organizing Business

Immigrants: New Labor Supplies for a New Economy

Efficient Machines, Efficient People

The Birth of a National Urban Culture

Economic Sources of Urban Growth

Building the Cities

Local Government Gets Bigger

Thrills, Chills, and Bathtubs: The Emergence of Consumer Culture

Shows and Sports as Spectacles

Entertainment Collides with Tradition

“Palaces of Consumption”

Defending the New Industrial Order

The Contradictory Politics of Laissez-Faire

Social Darwinism and the “Natural” State of Society


Envisioning History What Every Woman Wants: An Ad for a Bathtub

The Wider World Some Major Inventions of the Late Nineteenth Century

Interpreting History Andrew Carnegie and the “Gospel of Wealth”

17. Challenges to Government and Corporate Power, 1877–1890

Resistance to Legal and Military Authority

Chinese Lawsuits in California

Blacks in the “New South”

“Jim Crow” in the West

The Ghost Dance on the High Plains

Revolt in the Workplace

Trouble on the Farm

Militancy in the Factories and Mines

The Haymarket Bombing

Crosscurrents of Reform

The Goal of Indian Assimilation

Transatlantic Networks of Reform

Women Reformers: “Beginning to Burst the Bonds”


Envisioning History Jacob Riis Photographs Immigrants on the Lower East Side of New York City

The Wider World The Jewish Diaspora

Interpreting History “Albert Parsons’s Plea for Anarchy”

18. Political and Cultural Conflict in a Decade of Depression and War: The 1890s

Frontiers at Home, Lost and Found

Claiming and Managing the Land

The Tyranny of Racial Categories

New Roles for Schools

Connections Between Mind and Behavior

The Search for Domestic Political Alliances

Class Conflict

Rise and Demise of the Populists

Barriers to a U.S. Workers’ Political Movement

Challenges to Traditional Gender Roles

American Imperialism

Cultural Encounters with the Exotic

Initial Imperialist Ventures

The Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War of 1898

Critics of Imperialism


Envisioning History Housing Interiors and the Display of Wealth

The Wider World The Age of Imperialism, 1870-1914

Interpreting History Proceedings of the Congressional Committee on the Philippines

Part Seven. Reform at Home, Revolution Abroad, 1900–1929

19. Visions of the Modern Nation: The Progressive Era, 1900–1912

Expanding National Power

Theodore Roosevelt: The “Rough Rider” as President

Reaching Across the Globe

Protecting and Preserving the Natural World

William Howard Taft: The One-Term Progressive

Immigration: Visions of a Better Life

Land of Newcomers

The Southwest: Mexican Borderlands

Asian Immigration and the Impact of Exclusion

Newcomers from Southern and Eastern Europe

Reformers and Radicals

Muckraking, Moral Reform, and Vice Crusades

Women’s Suffrage

Radical Politics and the Labor Movement

Resistance to Racism

Work, Science, and Leisure

The Uses and Abuses of Science

Scientific Management and Mass Production

New Amusements

“Sex O’Clock in America”

Artists Respond to the New Era


Envisioning History Resisting Eugenics: A Political Cartoon

The Wider World The Immigrants Who Went Back Home
Interpreting History Defining Whiteness

20. War and Revolution, 1912–1920

A World and a Nation in Upheaval

The Apex of European Conquest

Confronting Revolutions in Asia and Europe

Influencing the Political Order in Latin America

Conflicts over Race and Ethnicity at Home

Women’s Challenges

Workers and Owners Clash

American Neutrality and Domestic Reform

“The One Great Nation at Peace”

Reform Priorities at Home

The Great Migration

Limits to American Neutrality

The United States Goes to War

The Logic of Belligerency

Mobilizing the Home Front

Ensuring Unity at Home

Joining the War in Europe

The Russian Revolution and the War in the East

The Struggle to Win the Peace

Peacemaking and the Versailles Treaty

Waging Counterrevolution Abroad

The Red and Black Scares at Home


Envisioning History Political Cartoons and Wartime Dissent

The Wider World Casualties of the Great War, 1914-1918

Interpreting History Sex and Citizenship

21. All That Jazz: The 1920s

The Decline of Progressive Reform and the Business of Politics

Women’s Rights After the Struggle for Suffrage

Prohibition: The Experiment That Failed

Reactionary Impulses

Marcus Garvey and the Persistence of Civil Rights Activism

Warren G. Harding: The Politics of Scandal

Calvin Coolidge: The Hands-Off President

Herbert Hoover: The Self-Made President

Hollywood and Harlem: National Cultures in Black and White

Hollywood Comes of Age

The Harlem Renaissance

Radios and Autos: Transforming Leisure at Home

Science on Trial

The Great Flood of 1927

The Triumph of Eugenics: Buck v. Bell

Science, Religion, and the Scopes Trial

Consumer Dreams and Nightmares

Marketing the Good Life

Writers, Critics, and the “Lost Generation”

Poverty Amid Plenty

The Stock Market Crash


Envisioning History Selling Treats in the Los Angeles Suburbs

The Wider World Global Hollywood

Interpreting History F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

Part Eight. From Depression and War to World Power, 1929–1953

22. Hardship and Hope: The Great Depression of the 1930s

The Great Depression

Causes of the Crisis

Surviving Hard Times

Enduring Discrimination

The Dust Bowl

Presidential Responses to the Depression

Herbert Hoover: Failed Efforts

Franklin Delano Roosevelt: The Pragmatist

Eleanor Roosevelt: Activist and First Lady

“Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself”

The New Deal

The First Hundred Days

Monumental Projects Transforming the Landscape

Protest and Pressure from the Left and the Right

The Second New Deal

FDR’s Second Term

A New Political Culture

The Labor Movement

The New Deal Coalition

A New Americanism


Envisioning History In the Shadow of the American Dream

The Wider World The Great Depression in North America and Western Europe

Interpreting History Songs of the Great Depression

23. Global Conflict: World War II, 1937–1945

The United States Enters the War

Fascist Aggression in Europe and Asia

The “Great Debate” over Intervention

The Attack on Pearl Harbor

Japanese American Relocation

Foreign Nationals in the United States

Wartime Migrations

Total War

The Holocaust

The War in Europe

The War in the Pacific

The Home Front

Propaganda and Morale

Home Front Workers, Rosie the Riveter, and Victory Girls

Racial Tensions at Home and the “Double V” Campaign

The End of the War

The Manhattan Project

Planning for the Postwar Era

Victory in Europe and the Pacific


Envisioning History The Limits of Racial Tolerance

The Wider World Casualties of World War II

Interpreting History Zelda Webb Anderson, “You Just Met One Who Does Not Know How to Cook”

24. Cold War and Hot War, 1945–1953

The Uncertainties of Victory

Global Destruction

Vacuums of Power

Postwar Transition to Peacetime Life

Challenging Racial Discrimination

Class Conflict Between Owners and Workers

The Quest for Security

Redefining National Security

Conflict with the Soviet Union

The Policy of Containment

Colonialism and the Cold War

The Impact of Nuclear Weapons

American Security and Asia

The Chinese Civil War

The Creation of the National Security State

At War in Korea

A Cold War Society

Family Lives

The Growth of the South and the West

Harry Truman and the Limits of Liberal Reform

Cold War Politics at Home

Who Is a Loyal American?


Envisioning History The Unity of Communists?

The Wider World The Most Populous Urban Areas

Interpreting History NSC-68

Part Nine. The Cold War at Full Tide, 1953–1979

25. Domestic Dreams and Atomic Nightmares, 1953–1963

Cold War, Warm Hearth

Consumer Spending and the Suburban Ideal

Race, Class, and Domesticity

Women: Back to the Future

Mobilizing for Peace and the Environment

The Civil Rights Movement

Brown v. Board of Education

White Resistance, Black Persistence

Boycotts and Sit-Ins

The Eisenhower Years

The Middle of the Road

Eisenhower’s Foreign Policy

Cultural Diplomacy

Outsiders and Opposition

The Kennedy Era

Kennedy’s Domestic Policy

Kennedy’s Foreign Policy

1963: A Year of Turning Points


Envisioning History The Family Fallout Shelter

The Wider World The Distribution of Wealth

Interpreting History Rachel Carson, Silent Spring

26. The Vietnam War and Social Conflict, 1964–1971

Lyndon Johnson and the Apex of Liberalism

The New President

The Great Society: Fighting Poverty and Discrimination

The Great Society: Improving the Quality of Life

The Liberal Warren Court

Into War in Vietnam

The Vietnamese Revolution and the United States

Johnson’s War

Americans in Southeast Asia

1968: The Turning Point

“The Movement”

From Civil Rights to Black Power

The New Left and the Struggle Against the War

Cultural Rebellion and the Counterculture

Women’s Liberation

The Many Fronts of Liberation

The Conservative Response


The Turmoil of 1968 at Home

The Nixon Administration

Escalating and Deescalating in Vietnam


Envisioning History Pop Art

The Wider World Military Expenditures, 1966

Interpreting History Martin Luther King Jr. and the Vietnam War

27. Reconsidering National Priorities, 1972–1979

Twin Shocks: Détente and Watergate

Triangular Diplomacy

Scandal in the White House

The Nation After Watergate

Discovering the Limits of the U.S. Economy

The End of the Long Boom

The Oil Embargo

The Environmental Movement

Reshuffling Politics

Congressional Power Reasserted

Jimmy Carter: “I Will Never Lie to You”

Rise of a Peacemaker

The War on Waste

Pressing for Equality

The Meanings of Women’s Liberation

New Opportunities in Education, the Workplace, and Family Life

Equality Under the Law


Integration and Group Identity


Envisioning History U.S. Dependence on Petroleum Imports

The Wider World Conservative Religious Resurgence in the 1970s

Interpreting History The Church Committee and CIA Covert Operations

Part Ten. Global Connections, at Home and Abroad, 1979–2007

28. The Cold War Returns—and Ends, 1979–1991

Anticommunism Revived

Iran and Afghanistan

The Conservative Victory of 1980

Renewing the Cold War

Republican Rule at Home


The Environment Contested

The Affluence Gap

Cultural Conflict

The Rise of the Religious Right

Dissenters Push Back

The New Immigrants

The End of the Cold War

From Cold War to Détente

The Iran-Contra Scandal

A Global Police?


Envisioning History The Mall of America

The Wider World Global Immigration in the 1980s

Interpreting History Religion and Politics in the 1980s

29. Post–Cold War America, 1991–2000

The Economy: Global and Domestic

The Post–Cold War Economy

The Widening Gap Between Rich and Poor

Service Workers and Labor Unions

Industry versus the Environment

Tolerance and Its Limits

The Los Angeles Riots: “We Can All Get Along”

Values in Conflict

Courtroom Dramas: Clarence Thomas and O. J. Simpson

The Changing Face of Diversity

The Clinton Years

The 1992 Election

Clinton’s Domestic Agenda and the “Republican Revolution”

The Impeachment Crisis

Trade, Peacemaking, and Military Intervention

Terrorism and Danger at Home and Abroad

The Contested Election of 2000

The Campaign, the Vote, and the Courts

The Aftermath

Legacies of Election 2000


Envisioning History The Great American Voting Machine

The Wider World How Much Do the World’s CEOs Make Compared to Workers?

Interpreting History Vermont Civil Union Law

30. A Global Nation in the New Millennium

George W. Bush and War in the Middle East

The President and the “War on Terror”

Security and Politics at Home

Into War in Iraq

The Election of 2004 and the Second Bush Administration

The American Place in a Global Economy

The Logic and Technology of Globalization

Free Trade and the Global Assembly Line

Who Benefits from Globalization?

The Stewardship of Natural Resources

Ecological Transformations


Environmentalism and Its Limitations

The Expansion of American Popular Culture Abroad

A Culture of Diversity and Entertainment

U.S. Influence Abroad Since the Cold War

Resistance to American Popular Culture

Identity in Contemporary America

Negotiating Multiple Identities

Social Change and Abiding Discrimination

Still an Immigrant Society


Envisioning History Where Is the West?

The Wider World Capital Punishment, Abolition and Use

Interpreting History The “War on Terror”


The Declaration of Independence

The Article of Confederation

The Constitution of the United States of America

Amendments to the Constitution

Presidential Elections






Front: The United States

Back: Present Day World

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