Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States / Edition 1 available in Hardcover
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About the Author
JACQUELINE JONES was born in Christiana, Delaware, a small town of 400 people in the northern part of the state. The local public school was desegregated in 1955, when she was a third-grader. That event, combined with the peculiar social etiquette of relations between blacks and whites in the town, sparked her interest in American history. She attended the University of Delaware in nearby Newark, and went on to graduate school at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she received her Ph.D. in history. Her scholarly interests have evolved over time, focusing on American labor, women, African American, and southern history. One of her biggest challenges has been to balance her responsibilities as teacher, historian, wife, and mother of two daughters. One of her proudest achievements is the fact that she has been able to teach full-time and still pick up her daughters at school every day at 2:30 in the afternoon (thanks to a flexible professor¹s schedule). She is the author of several books, including Soldiers of Light and Love: Northern Teachers and Georgia Blacks; Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and Family Since Slavery, which won the Bancroft Prize and was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize; The Dispossessed: America¿s Underclasses Since the Civil War; and American Work: Four Centuries of Black and White Labor. In 2001, she completed a memoir that recounts her childhood in Christiana: Creek Walking: Growing Up in Delaware in the 1950s. She teaches American history at Brandeis University, where she is Harry S. Truman Professor. In 1999, she received a MacArthur Fellowship.
PETER H. WOOD was born in St. Louis (before the famous arch was built). He recalls seeing Jackie Robinson play against the Cardinals, visiting the Court House where the Dred Scott case originated, and traveling up the Mississippi to Hannibal, birthplace of Mark Twain. Summer work on the northern Great Lakes aroused his interest in Native American cultures, past and present. He studied at Harvard and at Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. His pioneering book, Black Majority, concerning slavery in colonial South Carolina, won the Beveridge Prize of the American Historical Association. Since 1975, he has taught early American history at Duke University, where he also coached the women¿s lacrosse club for three years. The topics of his articles range from the French explorer LaSalle to Gerald Ford¿s pardon of Richard Nixon. He is the co-author of Winslow Homer¿s Images of Blacks and Natives and Newcomers, a book about early North Carolina. In 1989 he co-edited Powhatan¿s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast. His demographic essay in that volume provided the first clear picture of population change in the 18th-Century South. Dr. Wood has served on the boards of the Highlander Center, Harvard University, Houston¿s Rothko Chapel, the Menil Foundation, and the Institute of Early American History and Culture in Williamsburg. He is married to colonial historian Elizabeth Fenn; his varied interests include archaeology, documentary film, and growing gourds. He keeps a baseball bat used by Ted Williams beside his desk.
THOMAS BORSTELMANN the son of a university psychologist, has taught at the elementary, high school, and college levels. He taught second-grade physical education, taught and coached high school lacrosse, soccer, and basketball, and since 1991 has taught American history at Cornell University. In addition to his teaching experience, he also served as ¿Head Maid¿ of a conference center near Lake Tahoe. He lives with his wife and two sons in Syracuse, New York, where his greatest challenge – and delight – is doing the bulk of childcare while commuting sixty miles to Cornell. An avid bicyclist, runner, and cross-country skier, he earned his B.A. from Stanford University in 1980 and Ph.D. from Duke University in 1990. He became a historian in order to figure out the Cold War and American race relations, in part because he had grown up in the South. His first book on American relations with southern Africa won the Stuart L. Bernath Book Prize of the Society for Historians of Foreign Relations. His second book, The Cold War and the Color Line, has just been published. His commitment to the classroom remains clear at Cornell University, where he has won a major teaching award – the Robert and Helen Appel Fellowship. He found writing Created Equal a natural complement to what he does in the classroom, trying to provide both telling details of the American past and the broad picture of how the United States has developed as it has. A specialist in U.S. foreign relations, he is equally fascinated with domestic politics and social change. He is currently at work on a book on the 1970s.
ELAINE TYLER MAY grew up in the shadow of Hollywood, performing in neighborhood circuses with her friends. She went to high school before girls could play on sports teams, so she spent her after-school hours as a cheerleader and her summer days as a bodysurfing beach bum. Her passion for American history developed in college when she spent her junior year in Japan. The year was 1968. The Vietnam War was raging, along with turmoil at home. As an American in Asia, frequently called upon to explain her nation¿s actions, she yearned for a deeper understanding of America¿s past and its place in the world. She returned home to study history at UCLA, where she earned her BA, MA, and Ph.D. She has taught at Princeton and Harvard universities and since 1978 at the University of Minnesota. She has written four books examining the relationship between politics, public policy, and private life. Her widely acclaimed Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era was the first study to link the baby boom and suburbia to the politics of the Cold War. The Chronicle of Higher Education featured Barren in the Promised Land: Childless Americans and the Pursuit of Happiness as a pioneering study of the history of reproduction. Lingua Franca named her co-edited volume Here, There, and Everywhere: The Foreign Politics of American Popular Culture as a "Breakthrough Book." She served as president of the American Studies Association in 1996, and as Distinguished Fulbright Professor of American History in Dublin, Ireland, in 1997. She is married to historian Larry May and has three children who have inherited their parents¿ passion for history.
VICKIE L. RUIZ is Professor of History and Chicano/Latino Studies at the University of California, Irvine. For her, history remains a grand adventure, one that began at the kitchen table listening to the stories of her mother and grandmother and then took flight aboard the local bookmobile. She read constantly as she sat on the dock catching small fish (¿grunts¿) to be used as bait on her father¿s fishing boat. As she grew older, she was promoted to working with her mother selling tickets for the Blue Sea II. The first in her family to receive an advanced degree, she graduated from Gulf Coast Community College and Florida State University, then went on to earn a Ph.D. in history at Stanford in 1972, the fourth Mexican American woman to receive a doctorate in history. Her first book, Cannery Women, Cannery Lives, received an award from the National Women¹s Political Caucus and her second, From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in 20th-Century America, was named a Choice Outstanding Academic Book of 1998 by the American Library Association. She is co-editor with Ellen Carol Dubois of Unequal Sisters: A Multicultural Reader in U.S. Women¿s History. She and Virginia Sánchez Korrol have embarked on co-editing Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia and both were recognized by Latina Magazine as ¿Latinas of the Year in Education for 2000.¿ Active in student mentorship projects, summer institutes for teachers, and public humanities programs, Ruiz served as a Clinton recess appointee to the National Council of the Humanities. She has also served on the national governing bodies of the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Histories, and the American Studies Association. She is President-elect of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association. The mother of two grown sons, she is married to Victor Becerra, urban planner and gourmet cook extraordinaire.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with “Conclusion,” “Sites to Visit,” and “For Further Reading.”
I. NORTH AMERICAN FOUNDERS.
1. First Founders.
A Thousand Years of Change: A.D. 500 to 1500.
Linking the Continents.
Spain Enters the Americas.
The Protestant Reformation Plays Out in America.
2. European Footholds on the Fringes of North America, 1600-1660.
Spain's Ocean-Spanning Reach.
France and Holland: Overseas Competition for Spain.
English Beginnings on the Atlantic Coast.
The Puritan Experiment.
The Chesapeake Bay Colonies.
Interpreting History: Anne Bradstreet: “The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung Up in America.”
3. Controlling the Edges of the Continent, 1660-1715.
France and the American Interior.
The Spanish Empire on the Defensive.
England's American Empire Takes Shape.
Bloodshed in the English Colonies: 1670-1690.
Consequences of War and Growth: 1690-1715.
Connecting History: Homeland Security and Deep Fears of the Enemy Within.
II. A CENTURY OF COLONIAL EXPANSION TO 1775.
4. African Enslavement: The Terrible Transformation.
The Descent into Race Slavery.
The Growth of Slave Labor Camps.
England Enters the Atlantic Slave Trade.
Survival in a Strange New Land.
The Transformation Completed.
InterpretingHistory: “Releese Us out of This Cruell Bondegg.”
5. An American Babel, 1713-1763.
New Cultures on the Western Plains.
Britain's Mainland Colonies: A New Abundance of People.
The Varied Economic Landscape.
Matters of Faith: The Great Awakening.
The French Lose a North American Empire.
Connecting History: Sounds Around Us: The Lost World of High Fidelity.
6. The Limits of Imperial Control, 1763-1775.
New Challenges to Spain's Expanded Empire.
New Challenges to Britain's Expanded Empire.
“The Unconquerable Rage of the People.”
A Conspiracy of Corrupt Ministers?
Launching a Revolution.
III. THE UNFINISHED REVOLUTION, 1775-1803.
7. Revolutionaries at War, 1775-1783.
“Victory or Death”: Fighting for Survival.
Legitimate States, a Respectable Military.
The Long Road to Yorktown.
Connecting History: Uncanny Similarities: Britain's Vietnam?
8. New Beginnings: The 1780s
Beating Swords into Plowshares.
Competing for Control of the Mississippi Valley.
Creditors and Debtors.
Drafting a New Constitution.
Ratification and the Bill of Rights.
Connecting History: Equal Representation?
9. Revolutionary Legacies, 1789-1803.
Competing Political Visions in the New Nation.
People of Color: New Freedoms, New Struggles.
Continuity and Change in the West.
Shifting Social Identities in the Post-Revolutionary Era.
The Election of 1800: Revolution or Reversal?
IV. EXPANDING THE BOUNDARIES OF FREEDOM AND SLAVERY, 1803-1848.
10. Defending and Expanding the New Nation, 1803-1818.
The British Menace.
The War of 1812.
The “Era of Good Feelings”?
The Rise of the Cotton Plantation Economy.
11. Expanding Westward: Society and Politics in the “Age of the Common Man,” 1819-1832.
The Politics Behind Western Expansion.
Federal Authority and Its Opponents.
Real People in the “Age of the Common Man.”
Ties That Bound a Growing Population.
Connecting History: The Strange Career of the Monroe Doctrine.
12. Peoples in Motion, 1832-1848.
A Multitude of Voices in the National Political Arena.
The United States Extends Its Reach.
Interpreting History:Senator John C. Calhoun Warns Against Incorporating Mexico into the United States.
V. DISUNION AND REUNION.
13. The Crisis over Slavery, 1848-1860.
Regional Economies and Conflicts.
Individualism vs. Group Identity.
The Paradox of Southern Political Power.
The Deepening Conflict over Slavery.
Interpreting History:Professor Howe on the Subordination of Women.
14. “To Fight to Gain a Country”: The Civil War.
Mobilization for War, 1861-1862.
The Course of War, 1862-1864.
The Other War: African American Struggles for Liberation.
Battle Fronts and Home Fronts in 1863.
The Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy, 1864-1865.
15. In the Wake of War: Consolidating a Triumphant Union, 1865-1877.
The Struggle over the South.
Claiming Territory for the Union.
The Republican Vision and Its Limits.
Connecting History: Two Presidents Impeached.
VI. THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA, 1877-1900.
16. Standardizing the Nation: Innovations in Technology, Business, and Culture, 1877-1890.
The New Shape of Business.
The Birth of a National Urban Culture.
Thrills, Chills, and Bathtubs: The Emergence of Consumer Culture.
Defending the New Industrial Order.
Interpreting History: Andrew Carnegie and the “Gospel of Wealth.”
17. Challenges to Government and Corporate Power: Resistance and Reform, 1877-1890.
Resistance to Legal and Military Authority.
Revolt in the Workplace.
Crosscurrents of Reform.
18. Political and Cultural Conflict in a Decade of Depression and War: The 1890s.
Frontiers at Home, Lost and Found.
The Search for Alliances.
Connecting History: Systems of Education.
VII. REFORM AT HOME, REVOLUTION ABROAD, 1900-1929.
19. The Promise and Perils of Progressive Reform, 1900-1912.
Migration and Immigration: The Changing Face of the Nation.
Work, Science, and Leisure.
Reformers and Radicals.
Expanding National Power.
Interpreting History:Defining Whiteness.
20. War and Revolution, 19121920.
A World in Upheaval.
The Great War and American Neutrality.
The United States Goes to War.
The Struggle to Win the Peace.
21. The Promise of Consumer Culture: The 1920s.
The Decline of Reform.
Hollywood and Harlem: National Cultures in Black and White.
Science on Trial.
The Business of Politics.
Consumer Dreams and Nightmares.
Interpreting History: Mario Puzo, The Fortunate Pilgrim.
VIII. FROM DEPRESSION AND WAR TO WORLD POWER, 1929-1953.
22. Hardship and Hope in the 1930s: The Great Depression.
The Great Depression.
Presidential Responses to the Depression.
The New Deal.
A New Political Culture.
Connecting History: Presidents and the Media.
23. Global Conflict: World War II, 1937-1945.
Mobilizing for War.
Pearl Harbor: The United States Enters the War.
The Home Front.
Race and War.
24. Cold War and Hot War, 1945-1953.
The Uncertainties of Victory.
The Quest for Security.
A Cold War Society.
The United States and Asia.
Connecting History: The Origins of the Cold War.
IX. THE COLD WAR AT FULL TIDE, 1953-1979.
25. Domestic Dreams and Atomic Nightmares, 1953-1963.
Cold War, Warm Hearth.
The Civil Rights Movement.
The Eisenhower Years.
Outsiders and Opposition.
The Kennedy Era.
Interpreting History: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring.
26. The Nation Divides: The Vietnam War and Social Conflict, 1964-1971.
Lyndon Johnson and the Apex of Liberalism.
Into War in Vietnam.
The Conservative Response.
27. Reconsidering National Priorities, 1972-1979.
Twin Shocks: Détente and Watergate.
Discovering the Limits of the U.S. Economy.
Diffusing the Women's Movement.
Connecting History: Energy Use in the United States.
X. A NATION OF IMMIGRANTS, A GLOBAL ECONOMY, 1979-2001.
28. The Cold War Returns–and Ends, 1979-1991.
Republican Rule at Home.
The End of the Cold War.
29. Post-Cold War America, 1991-2000.
The Economy: Global and Domestic.
Tolerance and Its Limits.
Violence and Danger.
The Clinton Presidency.
The Nation and the World.
The Contested Election of 2000.
Interpreting History: Vermont Civil Union Law.
30. A Global Nation for the New Millennium.
The American Place in a Global Economy.
The Stewardship of Natural Resources.
The Expansion of American Popular Culture Abroad.
Identity in Contemporary America.
Connecting History: The Internet and the World Wide Web.
The Declaration of Independence.
The Articles of Confederation.
The Constitution of the United States of America.
Amendments to the Constitution.
Present Day United States.
Present Day World.