ISBN-10:
9048130239
ISBN-13:
9789048130238
Pub. Date:
08/04/2009
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Creative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The Role of Imagery, Analogy, and Mental Simulation / Edition 1

Creative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The Role of Imagery, Analogy, and Mental Simulation / Edition 1

by John Clement

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789048130238
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 08/04/2009
Edition description: 1st ed. 2008. 2nd printing 2009
Pages: 602
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.40(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction: A "Hidden World" Of Nonformal Expert Reasoning
1.1 Why Study Nonformal Reasoning?
1.2 The Background From Which I Approached This Work
1.3 Methodology: Qualitative Nature Of The Study
1.4 General Features Of The Descriptive Methodology Used
1.5 General Theoretical Framework
1.6 Section Summaries And Approaches To Reading This Book PART ONE: ANALOGIES, MODELS AND CREATIVE LEARNING IN EXPERTS AND STUDENTS SECTION I: EXPERT REASONING AND LEARNING VIA ANALOGY
2 Major Subprocesses Involved in Spontaneous Analogical Reasoning
2.1 Some Major Issues in Analogical Reasoning
2.2 Method of Study
2.3 Initial Observations from Transcripts
2.4 Major processes used in analogical reasoning
2.5 Conclusion
3 Methods Experts Use to Generate Analogies
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Definitions of Basic Concepts and Observations
3.3 Discussion
4 Methods Experts Use to Evaluate an Analogy Relation
4.1 The Importance of Establishing the Validity of an Analogy Relation
4.2 Examples from Case Studies
4.3 Analogy Evaluation in the Doughnut Problem
4.4 Discussion of Findings and Connections to History of Science
4.5 Summary
5 Expert Methods for Developing an Understanding of the Analogous Case and Transferring Findings
5.1 Evaluating and Developing Understanding of the Analogous Case.
5.2 Transferring Findings
5.3 Summary on Creative Analogy Generation SECTION II: MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND SCIENTIFIC INSIGHT IN EXPERTS
6 Case Study of Model Construction Cycles in Expert Reasoning
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Background Questions from Philosophy of Science
6.3 How Are Theoretical Hypotheses Formed in the Individual Scientist?
6.4 Prool Evidence on Construction Cycles That Use Analogies
6.5 Summary of Evidence For A Model Construction Cycle as A Non-Inductive Source for Hypotheses
6.6 Major Nonformal Reasoning Patterns in the Preceding Chapters
7 Creativity and Scientific Insight in the Case Study for S2
7.1 Eureka or Accretion? The Presence of Insight in S2’s Prool
7.2 Creative Mental Processes
7.3 Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
7.4 Initial List of Features of Creative Thinking from this Case Study and Remaining Challenges SECTION III: NONFORMAL REASONING IN STUDENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
8 Spontaneous Analogies Generated by Students Solving Science Problems
8.1 Use of Analogies by Students
8.2 Conclusion
8.3 Appendix: Examples of Problems and Spontaneous Analogies
9 Case Study of a Student who Counters and Improves his own Misconception by Generating a Chain of Analogies
9.1 Spontaneous Analogies in a Student’s Problem Solution
9.2 Conclusion
10 Using Analogies and Models in Instruction to Deal with Students Preconceptions
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Teaching Strategy
10.3 Teaching Interviews
10.4 Applications to Classroom Teaching
10.5 Conclusion
10.5.2 Explanatory Models vs. Specific Analogous Cases PART TWO: ADVANCED USES OF IMAGERY AND PLAUSIBLE REASONING IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS SECTION IV: IMAGERY AND PHYSICAL INTUITION IN EXPERTS AND STUDENTS
11 Analogy, Extreme Cases, and Spatial Transformations in Mathematical Problem Solving by Experts
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Case Study of Analogical Reasoning in a Mathematics Problem
11.3 Results on the Use of Analogies for Eight Subjects
11.4 Other Creative Non-formal Reasoning Processes
11.5 Discussion
11.6 Conclusion
12 Depictive Gestures and Other Case Study Evidence for Mental Simulation in Experts and Students
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Constructing Observational and Theoretical Descriptors
12.3 Case Studies
12.4 Discussion
12.4.1 Types of Processes Associated with Motioning
12.4.2 Can Depictive Hand Motions Be a Direct Product of Imagery?
12.4.3 Summary of Relations between Observations and Hypotheses
12.5 Relationship of These Findings to Others in the Literature
12.5.1 The Existence of Kinesthetic Imagery
12.5.2 Depictive Motions Are Not Simply Translated from Sentences
12.5.3 Movements are a Partial Reflection of Core Meaning or Reasoning
12.5.4 Gestures Can Reflect Imagery
12.6 Conclusion
12.6.1 Hand Motions as a Source of Information about Imagery and Mental Simulations
12.6.2 Limitations
12.7 Appendix to Chapter 12 - Detailed Analysis of Evidence for Imagery from Hand Motions in S15's Prool
12.7.1 Motions Can Be a Direct Product of Solution Process
12.7.2 Motions are not Translated from Verbal Sentences
12.7.3 Evidence for Imagery
13 Physical Intuition, Imagistic Simulation and Implicit Knowledge
13.1 Introduction: Issues in the Area of Imagery, Simulation and Physical Intuition
13.2 Initial Examples of Physical Intuition
13.3 Imagery Reports and Imagistic Simulation
13.4 Implicit Knowledge
13.5 Knowledge Can Be Dynamic
13.6 Conclusion: The Role of Concrete Physical Intuitions and Simulations in Expert Thinking SECTION V: ADVANCED USES OF IMAGERY IN ANALOGIES, THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS, AND MODEL CONSTRUCTION
14 The Use of Analogies, Imagery, and Thought Experiments in both Qualitative and Quantitative Model Construction
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Monologue
14.3 Stages in the Solution
14.4 Explanatory Models vs. Expedient Analogies
14.5 Conclusion
15 Thought Experiments and Imagistic Simulation in Plausible Reasoning
15.1 Nature of Thought Experiments
15.2 Addressing the Thought Experiment Paradox: How Can an Untested Thought Experiment Generate Findings with Conviction?
15.3 Imagery Enhancement Phenomena Support The Proposed Answer To the Paradox
15.4 How Are Thought Experiments Used Within More Complex Reasoning Modes?
15.5 Are Imagistic Simulations Operating in the Mathematical Part of the Solution?
15.6 How Thought Experiments Contribute to Model Evaluation
15.7 Chapter Summary
16 An Evolutionary Model of Investigation and Model Construction Processes
16.1 Abductive Processes for Generating and Modifying Models
16.2 Investigation Processes
16.3 Quantitative Modeling
16.4 Abduction II: How Evaluation Processes Complement Generative Abduction.
16.5 Seeking an Optimal Level of Divergence
16.6 Chapter Summary
17 Imagistic Processes in Analogical Reasoning: Transformations and Dual Simulations
17.1 Two Precedents from the Literature
17.2 Conserving Transformations
17.3 Conserving Transformations In Science
17.4 Dual Simulation
17.5 Overlay Simulation
17.6 Summary and Discussion of Types of Evaluation Methods and Evaluation Process: Contrasting Mechanisms for Determining Similarity
17.7 Use of Imagistic Transformations During the Generation of Partitions, Analogies, Extreme Cases, and Explanatory Models
17.8 Conclusion
18 How Grounding in Runnable Schemas Contributes to Producing Flexible Scientific Models in Experts and Students
18.1 Introduction: Does Intuitive Anchoring Lead to Any Real Advantages?
18.2 Cognitive Benefits of Anchoring and Runnability for Models
18.4 Conclusion SECTION VI: CONCLUSIONS\
19 Summary of Findings on Plausible Reasoning and Learning in Experts I: Basic Findings
19.1 Overview of the Book
19.2 Analogy Findings Part I
19.3 Model Construction Findings Part I and Initial Connections to General Issues in History/Philosophy of Science
19.4 Imagistic Simulation Findings Part I
19.4.4 Connection to Experiments and Situated Action
20 Summary of Findings on Plausible Reasoning and Learning in Experts* II: Advanced Topics
20.1 Analogy Findings, Part II
20.2 Imagistic Simulation Findings Part II: Thought Experiments and their Uses in Plausible Reasoning
20.3 Model Construction Findings Part II: An Evolutionary Model of Investigation Processes
20.4 The Important Role of Imagery in the Expert Investigations
20.5 Transfer of Runnability Leads to Outcomes of Flexible Model Application and Generativity
20.6 Comments On Methodology
21 Creativity in Experts, Nonformal Reasoning, and Educational Applications
21.1 Summary Of The Overall Framework
21.2 How Experts Used Creativity Effectively
21.3 Educational Applications: Needed Additions to the Classical Theory of Conceptual Change in Education
21.4 Expert-Novice Similarities in Non-Formal Reasoning and Learning
21.5 Implications For Instructional Strategies And Theory
21.6 Are Creative Processes in Experts a Natural Extension of Everyday Thinking?
21.7 Assessing The Potential For a Model of Creative Theory Construction in Science
21.8 Conclusion

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