Pub. Date:
Anderson Publishing Company OH
Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations

Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations

by Steven P. Lab


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Lab (Bowling Green State University) exposes readers to some of the predominant crime prevention issues and techniques of the past 30 years, presents research and evaluations that have been carried out on the programs, and critically examines each prevention effort and its potential. Throughout the book, the key criteria for assessing the effectiveness of various crime prevention methods is lower subsequent offending and fear of crime. Some areas discussed include the mass media and crime prevention, community policing, and electronic monitoring. Chapter summaries are included. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780932930804
Publisher: Anderson Publishing Company OH
Publication date: 01/01/1988
Pages: 247
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Steven P. Lab is Professor and Director of the Criminal Justice Program and Chair of the Department of Human Services at Bowling Green State University. His research interests include victims of crime, crime prevention, juvenile delinquency, and school crime. Lab received his Ph.D. in Criminology from Florida State University in 1982. He has been a faculty member at Bowling Green since 1987. His primary research interests are in crime prevention and juvenile justice; he is the author of three textbooks and two edited works, and has published more than 30 articles on various topics.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1Crime and the Fear of Crime1
The Problem of Crime in Society1
Official Measures of Crime2
Measuring Victimization4
The Fear of Crime7
Defining and Measuring Fear7
Fear and Victimization10
Fear and Demographics10
Explaining the Divergent Findings11
Fear Summary14
Chapter 2A Crime Prevention Model15
Crime Prevention Through the Ages15
Defining Crime Prevention19
The Crime Prevention Model19
Primary Crime Prevention20
Secondary Crime Prevention20
Tertiary Crime Prevention22
Alternate Models22
An Overview of the Book23
Section IPrimary Prevention25
Chapter 3The Physical Environment and Crime27
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design27
Physical Design Features in Crime Prevention28
Access Control29
Activity Support and Motivation Reinforcement30
The Impact of Physical Design31
The Effects of Individual Factors32
Residential Crime Prevention Programs--Physical Design39
Cpted in a Commercial Area41
Incivility, Disorder, and Crime42
Chapter 4Neighborhood Crime Prevention47
Types of Neighborhood Crime Prevention Approaches49
Neighborhood/Block Watch49
Community Anti-Drug Programs52
Citizen Patrols52
Police-Community Involvement53
Evaluation of Neighborhood Crime Prevention53
Effects on Community Cohesion54
Effects on Crime55
Community Anti-Drug Programs59
Citizen Patrols61
Neighborhood Crime Prevention and Fear of Crime62
Additional Evaluation Issues63
Citizen Participation and Support65
Who Participates?65
Organizing Neighborhood Crime Prevention67
Chapter Summary70
Chapter 5Displacement and Diffusion73
Crime Displacement73
Types of Displacement74
Displacement: Benign or Malign?76
Offender Choice and Mobility77
Routine Activities78
Rational Choice79
Crime Pattern Theory82
Evidence of Displacement and Diffusion85
Displacement Effects85
Diffusion Effects89
Implications of Displacement and Diffusion90
Chapter 6The Mass Media and Crime Prevention91
The Media and Crime91
The Level of Reported Crime92
Media Accounts and Actual Crime92
Does the Media Cause Crime and Fear?93
Mass Media Crime Prevention Activities97
"Taking A Bite Out of Crime"97
Other Campaigns100
Crime Newsletters101
Information Lines103
Crime-Time Television105
The Media's Responsibility for Crime Prevention106
Chapter 7General Deterrence109
General and Specific Deterrence109
Requirements for Deterrence111
The Deterrent Effect of Legal Sanctions112
Cross-Sectional Analyses112
Longitudinal Research115
Perceptions and Deterrence119
Perceived Certainty119
Perceived Severity121
Combined Deterrence Factors122
Section IISecondary Prevention125
Chapter 8Prediction for Secondary Prevention127
Predicting Future Offending127
Types of Prediction128
Risk Factors and Prediction134
Family Factors135
Peer Factors136
Community Influences on Behavior136
Psychological/Personality Factors137
Biological Risk Factors137
Using Risk Factors as Predictors137
Predicting Places and Events139
Hot Spots for Crime139
Repeat Victimization141
Implications for Crime Prevention144
Chapter 9Situational Crime Prevention145
The Growth of Situational Prevention145
The Theoretical Basis146
The Process of Situational Prevention148
Clarke's Initial Situational Typology148
An Expanded Typology150
Unresolved Issues153
Situational Prevention Studies155
Studies of Transit System Fare Avoidance155
Vandalism and Crime on Public Transport156
Motor Vehicle Theft157
Other Theft Offenses158
Targeting Revictimization159
Chapter 10Community Policing161
What is Community Policing?161
Precursors to Community Policing162
Community Policing163
Problem Identification167
Community Policing Programs168
Civil Abatement169
"Weed and Seed" Programs170
Chicago's Alternative Police Strategy172
"Innovative Neighborhood-Oriented Policing"172
A Child Development-Community Policing Program173
Problems and Concerns174
Chapter 11Drugs, Crime, and Crime Prevention177
The Scope of Drug Use178
Self-Reported Drug Use178
Drug Use Among Offending Populations183
The Drugs-Crime Connection185
Interventions and Prevention188
Law Enforcement Efforts189
Treatment of Drug Users190
Prevention Programs193
Drugs and Crime Prevention196
Chapter 12The School and Crime Prevention197
Theoretical Views197
Educational Factors and Delinquency199
IQ and Delinquency199
School Practices and Delinquency200
Victimization and Fear in School201
School Programs for Delinquency Prevention203
Preschool Programs204
Elementary and High School Programs206
Alternative Schools210
Academic, Vocational, and Employment Programs211
The Future of School/Educational Programs in Crime Prevention213
Section IIITertiary Prevention215
Chapter 13Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation217
The Specific Deterrent Effect of Criminal Sanctions218
Studies of Imprisonment218
Alternate Studies of Specific Deterrence220
Collective Incapacitation224
The Costs of Collective Incapacitation226
Selective Incapacitation227
Future Implications229
Chapter 14Electronic Monitoring and Home Confinement231
The Growth of Home Confinement231
The Beginnings of Electronic Monitoring233
EMS Systems233
Expectations for EMS235
EMS Programs and Evaluation235
The Use of EMS236
Eligibility Criteria236
Offender Success on EMS237
EMS and Institutional Overcrowding239
Costs of Electronic Monitoring240
Other Client Impacts241
Problems and Concerns241
Operational Problems242
Legal Considerations243
Other Concerns244
The Future of Electronic Monitoring245
Chapter 15Rehabilitation247
The "What Works?" Argument247
Subsequent Analyses248
Alternative Outcome Measures249
Levels of Evaluation250
Evaluations of Recent Rehabilitation Programs251
Intensive Supervision251
Boot Camps255
Privatization in Corrections257
Assessing Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention259
Chapter 16Some Closing Thoughts on Crime Prevention and the Future261
The State of the Evidence261
Improving Our Knowledge263
Recognizing the Diversity in Crime Prevention265
Name Index315
Subject Index323

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