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Cengage Learning
Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology / Edition 5

Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology / Edition 5

by Andrew Karmen


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780534616328
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 01/12/2004
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 456
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Andrew Karmen has been a professor in the Sociology Department at John Jay College of Criminal Justice since 1978. He has taught courses on a wide range of subjects including general sociology, criminal justice, criminology, crime and justice in New York City, drug abuse, delinquency, social problems, race relations, research methods, statistics, and victimology. He has previously served as the coordinator of both the criminology and criminal justice undergraduate majors, the co-director of the master's program in criminal justice, and as a member of the doctoral faculty. Dr. Karmen has written journal articles and chapters in books on a number of subjects, including drug abuse, police use of deadly force, auto theft, providing defense attorneys to indigents, victims' rights, the victimization of women, and predictions about the plight of crime victims in the future. His investigation of why crime rates rise and fall, NEW YORK MURDER MYSTERY: THE TRUE STORY BEHIND THE CRIME CRASH OF THE 1990s, (NYU Press, paperback edition 2006) unearths statistical evidence that casts doubt on most of the widely held beliefs about the reasons for the dramatic improvement in public safety in New York City. In 2012, Dr. Karmen was awarded a Certificate of Appreciation by the World Society Of Victimology.

Table of Contents

1The Rediscovery of Crime Victims and the Rise of Victimology
The Discovery, Decline, and Rediscovery of Crime Victims2
The Discovery of Crime Victims2
The Decline of Crime Victims2
The Rediscovery of Crime Victims4
Social Movements: Taking Up the Victims' Cause4
The News Media: Portraying the Victim's Plight7
Businesses: Selling Products and Services to Victims7
The Rise of Victimology8
The Emergence of a New Focus8
Box 1.1Highlights in the Brief History of Victimology and Victim Assistance10
The Need for Objectivity12
Victimology Compared to Criminology20
What Victimologists Do23
Step 1Identify, Define, and Describe the Problem24
Step 2Measure the True Dimensions of the Problem24
Step 3Investigate How Victims Are Handled25
Step 4Gather Evidence to Test Hypotheses26
Victimology Contributes to the Process of Rediscovering Victims26
Box 1.2The Kinds of Studies Victimologists Undertake27
Stage 1Calling Attention to an Overlooked Problem28
Stage 2Winning Victories, Implementing Reforms30
Stage 3Emergence of an Opposition and Development of Resistance to Further Changes31
Stage 4Research and Temporary Resolution of the Dispute32
The Continuing Process of Rediscovery32
Box 1.3Groups of Victims That Have Been Recently Rediscovered34
Chapter Summary38
Discussion Questions39
2Digging Up the Facts About Crime Victims
Crime in the Streets: The Big Picture42
The Use and Abuse of Statistics42
A Closer Look at the Two Official Sources of Victimization Data46
The Uniform Crime Report47
The National Crime Victimization Survey49
Comparing the UCR and the NCVS52
Using Data to Bring the Big Picture Into Focus53
Searching for Crime Waves: Detecting Victimization Trends57
Changes Over Time in Violent Crime Rates57
Checking Out Whether More Robberies Are Turning into Murders61
Box 2.1"Your Money or Your Life"63
Using the UCR to Analyze Murders64
Murderers and Their Victims64
Using the NCVS to Analyze Robberies66
Robbers and Their Victims66
Findings From the NCVS That Shed Light on Robberies68
Making International Comparisons71
Comparing the Murder Rates in Different Societies72
Assessing Comparative Risks73
Putting Crime Into Perspective73
Uncovering Victimization Patterns76
Recognizing Differential Risks76
Differential Risks of Being Murdered77
Differential Risks of Being Robbed79
Projecting Cumulative Risks81
Estimating Lifetime Likelihoods81
Chapter Summary83
Discussion Questions84
3The Victims' Contribution to the Crime Problem
The Search for Risk Factors87
The Determinants of Differential Risks88
Reducing Risks: How Safe Is Safe Enough?93
From Crime Prevention to Victimization Prevention94
Ambivalence About Risk Taking96
Deterrence Theory As Applied to Victims97
The Controversy Over Shared Responsibility98
Box 3.1Expressions of Support for Inquiries Into the Victim's Role99
Victim Facilitation, Precipitation, and Provocation101
Victim Facilitation101
Victim Precipitation and Provocation104
The Frequency of Shared Responsibility in Violent Crimes106
Recognizing Complete Innocence and Full Responsibility107
Typologies of Shared Responsibility107
A Typology of Auto Theft Victims108
Victim Blaming Versus Victim Defending110
Victim Facilitation and Auto Theft: Is It the Careless Who Wind Up Carless?113
Box 3.2Criticisms of the Notion of Shared Responsibility114
Blaming the Victim for Facilitating the Crime117
Box 3.3Examples of "Motorist Blaming"118
Victim Precipitation and Rape: Was It Somehow Her Fault?119
Victim-Blaming Views122
Victim-Defending Perspectives124
Victim Provocation and Murder: When Is the Slaying of a Wife Beater Justified?125
Arguments Stressing That the Brutal Men Did Not Deserve to Die127
Arguments Emphasizing That the Brutal Men Provoked the Lethal Responses129
Transcending Victim Blaming and Victim Defending132
The Legal Importance of Determining Responsibility134
Box 3.4Prof Calls for Crackdown on Crime Victims135
Chapter Summary137
Discussion Questions138
4Victims and the Criminal Justice System: Cooperation and Conflict
Victims Versus the Criminal Justice System140
Box 4.1Criticisms of the Way the Criminal Justice System Handles Victims141
What Do Victims Want: Punishment? Treatment? or Restitution?142
Box 4.2The System's Shortcomings From a Victim's Point of View143
Victims and the Police148
Reporting Incidents148
Responding Quickly151
Investigating Complaints152
Judging Complaints to Be Unfounded154
Arresting Suspects156
Recovering Stolen Property160
Victims and Prosecutors161
Assisting Victims and Other Witnesses for the State162
Protecting Victims Serving as Witnesses for the Prosecution164
Dismissing Charges and Rejecting Cases167
Negotiating Pleas169
Victims and Defense Attorneys171
Postponing Hearings171
Cross-examining Witnesses During Trials172
Victims and Judges174
Granting Bail174
Sentencing Offenders175
Appealing to the Supreme Court178
Box 4.3Supreme Court Decisions Directly Affecting Victims179
Victims and Corrections Officials180
Contacting Parole Boards181
And Justice for All183
Recognizing "Second-class" Treatment183
Box 4.4Which Victims Get Better Treatment?185
Chapter Summary186
Discussion Questions186
5Special Kinds of Victims: Problems and Solutions
Missing Children189
Estimates of the Incidence and the Seriousness of the Problem190
Box 5.1Highlights of the Rediscovery of the Missing Children Problem191
Box 5.2How Often Are Children Kidnapped, and What Happens to Them?194
Hunting for Children Who Have Vanished194
Victimization Prevention Measures197
Physically and Sexually Abused Children198
The Rediscovery of Child Abuse198
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Child Abuse201
More Controversies Surrounding Childhood Sexual Abuse205
Accusations Made During Divorce Proceedings and Custody Battles205
The Furor Over Recalling Repressed Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse206
Strange Allegations of Ritualistic Abuse by Satanic Cults210
Abused Children and Legal Proceedings211
Taking the Best Interests of the Child Into Account212
Handling Charges of Abuse212
Children as Witnesses213
Proactive Versus Reactive Strategies217
More Casualties of Domestic Violence218
Abuse of Adolescents by Parents218
Abuse of Parents by Adolescents219
Sibling Abuse219
Elder Abuse219
Violence Between Intimates221
The Rediscovery of Wife Beating221
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Spouse Abuse224
Aiding Victims Who Feel Trapped229
Battered Women and the Criminal Justice System: Violence Is Violence, or Is It?231
The Police Response233
The Prosecutorial Response234
The Judicial Response235
Preventing Battering236
The Rediscovery of Other Victims of Beatings237
Battering Within Same-Sex Relationships237
The Controversy Surrounding Battered Husbands238
Victims of Sexual Assault239
The Rediscovery of the Plight of Rape Victims239
"Real Rapes" and "Date Rapes"240
The Consequences of Being Sexually Assaulted242
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Rape243
The Controversy Over Date Rape on College Campuses248
How the Criminal Justice System Handles Rape Victims250
The Controversy Over Unfounded Accusations251
The Accuser Versus the Accused254
Rape Shield Laws255
Force and Resistance256
Arrest, Prosecution, and Adjudication258
Crisis Centers: Providing Emergency Assistance259
Unwanted Publicity and Negative Media Portrayals260
Reducing the Threat of Rape262
The Rediscovery of More Rape Victims263
Wives Raped by Their Husbands263
Sexually Assaulted Males263
Chapter Summary265
Discussion Questions265
6Repaying Victims
Gaining Restitution From Offenders268
Back to Basics268
The Rise, Fall, and Revival of Restitution269
Divergent Goals, Clashing Philosophies273
Restitution as a Means of Repaying Victims273
Restitution as a Means of Rehabilitating Offenders274
Restitution as a Means of Reconciling Offenders and Their Victims274
Restitution as a Means of Punishing Offenders275
Opportunities Versus Obstacles275
Evaluating Restitution Programs280
Winning Judgments in Civil Court281
The Revival of Interest in Civil Lawsuits281
The Litigation Process282
Possibilities and Pitfalls283
Collecting Damages From Third Parties286
Suing Private Enterprises287
Suing Government Bodies288
Collecting Insurance Reimbursements290
Private Crime Insurance290
Patterns of Loss, Recovery, and Reimbursement291
Federal Crime Insurance291
Recovering Losses by Turning to Compensation Programs292
Reimbursement From Government Funds292
The History of Victim Compensation by Governments293
The Debate Over Compensation in the United States294
How Programs Operate: Similarities and Differences297
Monitoring and Evaluating Compensation Programs299
Uncovering How Programs Work299
Measuring the Effects of Programs301
Confiscating Profits From Notorious Criminals303
Chapter Summary304
Discussion Questions305
7Victims in the 21st Century: Alternative Directions
Toward Greater Formal Legal Rights Within the Criminal Justice System308
Rights Gained at the Expense of Offenders311
Rights Gained at the Expense of the System313
Rights Gained at the Expense of Either Offenders or the System or Both313
Toward Restorative Justice319
How Reconciliation Programs Work324
Evaluating Efforts at Reconciliation326
Pros and Cons From the Victim's Point of View327
Toward Retaliatory Justice330
Vigilantism's Frontier Origins331
Vigilantism Versus Legitimate Use of Force in Self-defense333
Would Potential Victims Be Better Off If They Were Armed?334
The Drift Back Toward Retaliatory Violence338
Chapter Summary344
Discussion Questions345
Name Index393
Subject Index401

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