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Criminals in the Making: Criminality Across the Life Course / Edition 1

Criminals in the Making: Criminality Across the Life Course / Edition 1

by John Paul Wright


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901412955200
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 05/16/2008
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 328
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

John Paul Wright is Professor of Criminal Justice in the Division of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati and is Distinguished Adjunct Professor at King Abdulaziz University, Jedda, Saudia Arabia. Dr. Wright was rated as the most productive associate professor in criminology and was recently evaluated as one of the most cited criminologists in the United States. He earned his undergraduate degrees in criminology from Indiana State University and his Ph.D. from the University of Cincinnati. He has published over 130 scholarly articles in criminology, psychology, behavioral genetics, and molecular genetics journals and is a frequent lecturer to professional organizations interested in the development of serious, violent offending. The winner of four teaching awards, he teaches in the area of life-course development and biosocial criminology.

Stephen G. Tibbetts, currently a Professor at California State University, San Bernardino, has been pursuing an understanding of criminal offending for over the past two decades. He has attempted to discover the extent to which individuals’ inherent dispositions and attitudinal traits contribute to their offending decisions, especially in relation to other factors, such as demographic, developmental, and situational factors. Dr. Tibbetts’ research has included work on the differences between men and women in their decisions to commit deviant behavior, as well as their perceptions of risk and consequences of getting caught. His additional research interests include the effects of perinatal disorders as an influence in future criminality, the etiology of white-collar crime, and gang intervention. Dr. Tibbetts has published nine books and more than 50 scholarly papers examining various issues in criminology. He received the 2011 Outstanding Professor Award at CSU, San Bernardino. He previously worked extensively as an Officer of the Court in providing recommendations for dispositions of numerous juvenile court cases from 1997 to 2008.

Leah E. Daigle is professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology in the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University. She received her Ph D in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati in 2005. Her most recent research is centered on repeat sexual victimization of college women and responses women use during and after being sexually victimized. Her other research interests include the development and continuation of offending and victimization across the life course. She is author of Victimology: A Text/Reader (2nd ed.), Victimology: The Essentials (2nd ed.), coauthor of Criminals in the Making: Criminality Across the Life Course, Victimology, and Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The Sexual Victimization of College Women, which was awarded the 2011 Outstanding Book Award by the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. She has also published numerous peer-reviewed articles that have appeared in outlets such as Justice Quarterly, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, and Victims and Offenders.

Table of Contents

Introduction     x
Life Course Criminology     1
Life Course Criminology     1
Origins of Life Course Criminology     2
The Criminal Career Approach     3
What Is Life Course Criminology?     4
Concepts and Issues in Life Course Criminology     6
Life Course Theories of Criminal Behavior     7
Theories of Stability and Change     8
Developmental Trajectories and Typologies of Offenders     10
Life Course Criminality     13
The Stability of Criminal and Analogous Behaviors     16
What Do We Mean by the Stability of Criminal Behavior?     18
How Is the Stability of Criminal Behavior Measured?     19
Issues Related to the Measurement of Stability     22
Empirical Findings on Stability     25
Review of the Stability of Problem Behavior     32
Conclusion     34
Continuity in Antisocial Potential     35
Continuity     36
Heterotypic, Homotypic, and Cumulative Continuity     37
State Dependence and Population Heterogeneity     40
Sources of Continuity     42
Genetic Continuity     44
Person-Environment Interactions     45
Evocative Person-Environment Interactions     46
Proactive Person-Environment Interactions     47
Reactive Person-Environment Interactions     51
Conclusion     54
Genetics and Crime     55
Early Biological Explanations     56
Biological Rejection     57
The New Study of Biology and Behavior     58
The Behavioral Genetic Study of Criminality     59
Behavioral Genetic Models     61
Early Findings From Twin and Adoption Studies     64
Contemporary Studies     66
Conclusion     70
Introduction to Brain Structure and Basic Functions-Part I: The Hindbrain, Midbrain, and Limbic Structures in the Development of Criminality     71
Brain Development and Structure     72
Hindbrain Structure and Functioning     73
Midbrain Structure and Functioning     76
Structures of the Subcortical (Limbic) Region     78
Conclusion     94
Introduction to Brain Structure and Basic Functions-Part II: Forebrain Formation, Trauma, and Criminal Behavior     95
Forebrain: Cortical Region     95
Lateralization and the Corpus Callosum     96
The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex      98
Explaining "Neural Darwinism": The Pruning of Neural Pathways     108
Conclusion     116
Concepts and Issues in Neuropsychological Functioning     117
Basic Structure and Functioning of Our Nervous System     118
The Nervous System     118
Neurons and Their Working Environment     122
Synapses and Formation of Synaptic Paths     126
Neurotransmitters     130
Nervous System Functioning and Criminality     138
Hormones and Their Effect on Physiology and Behavior     139
Integrating Concepts of Physiology and Environment     142
Conclusion     149
Gender Differences in Brain Processes and Laterality     150
Gender Differences in Hemispheric Lateralization     152
The Influence of Androgens (Male Hormones)     160
A Developmental Theory for Gender Differences in Criminality     163
Conclusion     169
Individuals and Their Social World     171
There Is Variation Left Unexplained by Genetic Influences     171
The Nature of Genetic Influences Changes     172
Heritability Estimates Differ Across Environments and Populations     173
Brain Plasticity Is Environmentally Influenced     175
Humans Are Not Blank Slates, Nor Are They Fully Developed at Birth     176
The Correlation and Interaction Between Genes and the Environment     178
Gene-Environment Correlations     178
Developmental Risk Factors     181
Pre- and Perinatal Factors and the Environment     181
Effects of Alcohol and Drugs on Fetal Development     182
Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine     183
Prenatal Care     184
Perinatal and Early Infancy Events     185
Biosocial Issues in Development     186
Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder     186
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder     187
Activity of Nervous System: Sensation Seeking     188
Deficits in Neuropsychological Functioning     189
Individuals in Their Environment     190
Participation in Peer Networks     190
Individuals and the Family Environment     191
Prepubescence: Infancy and Childhood     195
What Do We Mean by Problem Behavior in Infancy and Childhood?     196
The Prevalence and Frequency of Problem Behavior in Infancy and Early Childhood     198
Continuity in Problem Behaviors Over Time     203
Boys and Girls     208
A Contemporary Understanding of Initial Differences     209
Development Across Childhood     211
Physical Growth     215
Brain Development in Context     215
Language Development     220
Social Development     225
Postpubescence: Adolescence and Adulthood     229
What Is Adolescence, and Why Did We Include Adulthood?     230
Sexual Maturation and Human Development     232
The Effects of Sexual Maturation     234
Timing Within Transitional Periods     236
Accentuation During Transitional Periods     237
Perturbation     238
Adolescent Development     239
Choice and the Structure of Life     241
Brain Development, Choice, and Adolescent Functioning     243
Adolescent Decision Making     247
Adult Criminals     249
Policy Recommendations     253
Contextual Factors     254
Remove Environmental Toxins     254
Share Information Across Service Providers     254
Parenting Classes for All Serious Felons     254
Rework the Foster Care System     254
Victim Counseling     255
Better Training and Education of Justice Professionals     255
Later School Hours     255
Continued Research Into Pharmaceutical Therapies for Behavioral Disorders     255
Prior to Birth     256
Health Care, Including Mental Health Care, for Pregnant Women and Infants     256
Legally Mandated Intervention for Drug-Addicted Pregnant Women     256
At Birth     256
Intensive Social Work for High-Risk Pregnancies     256
After Birth     257
Systematic Early Intervention     257
Flagging At-Risk Kids in Doctors' Offices     257
Training for Parents     257
Child Development     258
Universal Preschool With Full Developmental Evaluations     258
Males and Females Are Different     258
Adolescence     258
Free Mental Health and Drug Counseling     258
Zero Tolerance Is Foolish     259
Juvenile Justice Should Hold Youths Accountable and Try to Rehabilitate Them     259
Adulthood     259
Treatment and Punishment     259
Caveats     259
Closing Thoughts     260
References     261
Index     289
About the Authors     313

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