ISBN-10:
0078119146
ISBN-13:
9780078119149
Pub. Date:
01/15/2014
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Critical Thinking / Edition 11

Critical Thinking / Edition 11

by Brooke Noel Moore, Richard Parker

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Overview

Critical Thinking / Edition 11

The first integrated program designed specifically for the critical thinking course, Moore & Parker's Critical Thinking teaches students the skills they need in order to think for themselves-skills they will call upon in this course, in other college courses, and in the world that awaits. The authors' practical and accessible approach illustrates core concepts with concrete real-world examples, extensive practice exercises, and a thoughtful set of pedagogical features. Connect and LearnSmart for Critical Thinking coalesce in a highly adaptive learning environment where each student gets the targeted help he or she needs for more efficient mastery of course concepts.

Instructors and students can now access their course content through the Connect digital learning platform by purchasing either standalone Connect access or a bundle of print and Connect access. McGraw-Hill Connect® is a subscription-based learning service accessible online through your personal computer or tablet. Choose this option if your instructor will require Connect to be used in the course. Your subscription to Connect includes the following:

• SmartBook® - an adaptive digital version of the course textbook that personalizes your reading experience based on how well you are learning the content.
• Access to your instructor’s homework assignments, quizzes, syllabus, notes, reminders, and other important files for the course.
• Progress dashboards that quickly show how you are performing on your assignments and tips for improvement.
• The option to purchase (for a small fee) a print version of the book. This binder-ready, loose-leaf version includes free shipping.

Complete system requirements to use Connect can be found here: http://www.mheducation.com/highered/platforms/connect/training-support-students.html

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780078119149
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date: 01/15/2014
Edition description: Net
Pages: 512
Sales rank: 723,771
Product dimensions: 7.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.80(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Brooke Moore and Richard Parker have taught philosophy at California State University, Chico, for almost as long as they can remember. Moore has been that university’s Outstanding Professor, and both he and Parker have received top academic honors on their campus. Moore has seen several terms as department chair, and Parker has served as chair of the academic senate and dean of undergraduate education.

Moore has a bachelor’s degree in music from Antioch College and a PhD in philosophy from the University of Cincinnati; Parker did his undergraduate degree at the University of Arkansas and his PhD at the University of Washington,
both in philosophy.

Moore has finally given up being the world’s most serious amateur volleyball player. He and Marianne share their house and life with several dogs. He has never sold an automobile.

Parker gets around in a 1962 MG or on a Harley softail. He plays golf for fun, shoots pool for money, and plays guitar for a semiprofessional flamenco troupe.
He gets to Spain as often as he is able.

The two have remained steadfast friends through it all. They are never mistaken for one another.

Table of Contents

Preface

PART 1. INTRODUCTION

1. What Is Critical Thinking?
Claims and Critical Thinking
Issues and Arguments
Identifying the Issue
Settling an Issue Through Argument
Facts and Opinions
Objective and Subjective Claims
"Everyone's Entitled . . ."
Beliefs, Opinions, Views, Convictions, Prejudices
A Note About Feelings

2. Critical Thinking and Clear Writing
Organization and Focus
Principles of Organization
Good Writing Practices
Essay Types to Avoid
Clarity in Writing
Defining Terms
Ambiguous Claims
Vague Claims
Claims That Make Comparisons
Persuasive Writing
Writing in a Diverse Society

PART II. CLAIMS

3. Evaluating Informative Claims
Assessing the Content of the Claim
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Personal Observations?
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information?
Assessing the Credibility of the Source
Experts
The News Media
Reporting the News
Who Listens to the News?
The Internet

4. Persuasion Through Rhetoric
Rhetorical Devices and Techniques (Starters)
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
Persuasive Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations
Stereotypes
Innuendo
Loaded questions
Weaselers
Downplayers
Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm
Hyperbole
Proof Surrogates
Advertising
Primates of the Miocene

5. More Rhetorical Devices
Smokescreen/Red Herring
The Subjectivist Fallacy
Appeal to Popularity (ad populum)
Common Practice
Peer Pressure
Bandwagon
Wishful Thinking
Scare Tactics
Appeal to Pity
Apple Polishing
Appeal to Anger or Indignation
Two Wrongs Make a Right

6. More Pseudoreasoning and Other Rhetorical Plays
Ad Hominem
Personal Attack
Circumstantial Ad Hominem
Pseudorefutation
Poisoning the Well
Genetic Fallacy
Burden of Proof
Straw Man
False Dilemma
Perfectionist Fallacy
Line-Drawing Fallacy
Slippery Slope
Begging the Question

7. Explanations
Explanations and Arguments
Explanations and Justifications
Kinds of Explanations
Physical Explanations
Behavioral Explanations
Functional Explanations
Spotting Weak Explanations
Testability
Noncircularity
Relevance
Freedom from Excessive Vagueness
Reliability
Explanatory Power
Freedom from Unnecessary Assumptions
Consistency with Well-Established Theory
Absence of Alternative Explanations
Explanatory Comparisons (Analogies)

PART III. ARGUMENTS

8. Understanding and Evaluating Arguments
The Anatomy of Arguments
Good and Bad, Valid and Invalid, Strong and Weak
Deduction and Induction
Unstated Premises
Identifying Unstated Premises
Techniques for Understanding Arguments
Clarifying an Argument's Structure
Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing
Evaluating Arguments
Do the Premises Support the Conclusion?
Are the Premises Reasonable?

9. Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic
Categorical Claims
Venn Diagrams
Translation into Standard Form
The Square of Opposition
Three Categorical Operations
Conversion
Obversion
Contraposition
Categorical Syllogisms
The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity
Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises
Real-Life Syllogisms
The Rules Method of Testing for Validity

10. Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic
Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols
Claim Variables
Truth Tables
Symbolizing Compound Claims
Truth-Functional Arguments
Deductions
Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns
Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences
Conditional Proof

11. Inductive Arguments
Inductive Generalizations
Representativeness and Bias
Random Variation
Everyday Inductive Generalizations
The Two Key Questions We Should Ask of Any Inductive
Generalization
Analogical Arguments
Fallacies
Untrustworthy Polls
Playing by the Numbers

12. Causal Arguments
Causation Among Specific Events
Only-Relevant-Difference Reasoning
Only-Relevant-Common-Thread Reasoning
Common Mistakes Found in Causal Reasoning
Possible Mistakes in Relevant-Difference Reasoning
Possible Mistakes in Common-Thread Reasoning
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Overlooking the Possibility of Coincidence
Questions to Ask About Causal Reasoning
Causation in Populations
Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments
Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies
Appeal to Anecdotal Evidence

13. Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning
Moral Reasoning
Descriptive and Prescriptive Moral Claims
Consistency and Fairness
Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning
Moral Deliberation
Legal Reasoning
Legal Reasoning and Moral Reasoning Compared
Two Types of Legal Studies: Justifying Laws and Interpreting Laws
The Role of Precedent in Legal Reasoning
Aesthetic Reasoning
Eight Aesthetic Principles
Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value
Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth
Why Reason Aesthetically?

Appendix 1: Conflicting Claims
Appendix 2: Analytic Claims
Appendix 3: Some Common Patterns of Deductive

Arguments
Glossary
Answers, Suggestions, and Tips for Triangle Exercises

Essays for Analysis

Selection 1: Cynthia Tucker, Death Penalty Has No Place in U.S.
Selection 2: Richard Parker, Hetero by Choice?
Selection 3: Bonnie and Clyde
Selection 4: EDWARD C. KRUG, Will Ozone Blob Devour the Earth?
Selection 5a: USA TODAY, Equal Treatment Is Real Issue—Not Marriage
Selection 5b: THE REV. LOUIS P. SHELDON, Gay Marriage "Unnatural"
Selection 6a: USA Today, Latest Ruling Is Good Scout Model
Selection 6b: Larry P. Arnn, Decision Assaults Freedom
Selection 7: Enterprise Record, Is God Part of Integrity?
Selection 8: DON EDWARDS, Shorten Federal Jail Time
Selection 9a: USA TODAY, Clean Needles Benefit Society
Selection 9b: PETER B. GEMMA JR., Programs Don't Make Sense
Selection 10a: USA TODAY, Make Fast Food Smoke-Free
Selection 10b: BRENNAN M. DAWSON, Don't Overreact to Smoke
Selection 11a: USA TODAY, Buying Notes Makes Sense at Lost-in-Crowd Campuses
Selection 11b: Buying or Selling Notes Is Wrong
Selection 12a: USA TODAY, Next, Comprehensive Reform of Gun Laws
Selection 12b: ALAN M. GOTTLIEB, Gun Laws Are No Answer
Selection 13a: USA TODAY, How Can School Prayer Possibly Hurt? Here's How
Selection 13b: ARMSTRONG WILLIAMS, We Need More Prayer
Selection 14: BARBARA EHRENREICH, Planet of the White Guys
Selection 15: JOANNE JACOBS, Do Women Really Need Affirmative Action?
Selection 16: FOCUS ON THE FAMILY, In Defense of a Little Virginity

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