Intended to bridge the gap between the latest methodological developments and cross-cultural research, this interdisciplinary resource presents the latest strategies for analyzing cross-cultural data. Techniques are demonstrated through the use of applications that employ cross-national data sets such as the latest European Social Survey. With an emphasis on the generalized latent variable approach, internationally prominent researchers from a variety of fields explain how the methods work, how to apply them, and how they relate to other methods presented in the book. Syntax and graphical and verbal explanations of the techniques are included. A website features some of the data sets and syntax commands used in the book.
Applications from the behavioral and social sciences that use real data sets demonstrate:
The use of samples from 17 countries to validate the resistance to change scale across these nations.
How to test the cross-national invariance properties of social trust.
The interplay between social structure, religiosity, values, and social attitudes.
A comparison of anti-immigrant attitudes and patterns of religious orientations across European countries.
The book is divided into techniques for analyzing cross-cultural data within the generalized-latent-variable approach: multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling; multi-level analysis; latent class analysis; and item-response theory. Since researchers from various disciplines often use different methodological approaches, a consistent framework for describing and applying each method is used so as to cross 'methodological borders' between disciplines. Some chapters describe the basic strategy and how it relates to other techniques presented in the book, others apply the techniques and address specific research questions, and a few combine the two. A table in the preface highlights for each chapter: a description of the contents, the statistical methods used, the goal(s) of the analysis, and the data set employed.
The book is intended for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in cross-cultural research. Because the applications span a variety of disciplines, the book will appeal to researchers and students in: psychology, political science, sociology, education, marketing and economics, geography, criminology, psychometrics, epidemiology, and public health, as well as those interested in methodology. It is also appropriate for an advanced methods course in cross-cultural analysis.
About the Author
Eldad Davidov is Professor of Sociology at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. His research interests are applications of structural equation modeling to survey data, especially in cross-cultural and longitudinal research. Applications include human values, national identity, and attitudes toward immigrants and other minorities.
Peter Schmidt is Professor of Sociology at the University of Marburg and Professor Emeritus of Social Research Methods and Political Science at the University of Giessen, Germany. His research interests include the foundations and applications of structural equation models, panel data analysis, and the empirical testing of rational choice theory. Applications include national identity, immigration, and environmental behavior.
Jaak Billiet was full professor in social methodology at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, and is now professor emeritus with research tasks. His research interests include validity assessment and modeling measurement error in social surveys as well as longitudinal and comparative research in ethnocentrism, political attitudes and religious orientations.
Table of Contents
Section I MGCFA and MGSEM Techniques
Chapter 1 Capturing Bias in Structural Equation Modeling Fons J. R. van de Vijver 3
Chapter 2 Evaluating Change in Social and Political Trust in Europe Nick Allum Sanna Read Patrick Sturgis 35
Chapter 3 Methodological Issues in Using Structural Equation Models for Testing Differential Item Functioning Jaehoon Lee Todd D. Little Kristopher J. Preacher 55
Chapter 4 Estimation and Comparison of Latent Means Across Cultures Holger Steinmetz 85
Chapter 5 Biased Latent Variable Mean Comparisons due to Measurement Noninvariance: A Simulation Study Alain De Beuckelaer Gilbert Swinnen 117
Chapter 6 Testing the Invariance of Values in the Benelux Countries with the European Social Survey: Accounting for Ordinality Eldad Davidov Georg Datler Peter Schmidt Shalom H. Schwartz 149
Chapter 7 Religious Involvement: Its Relation to Values and Social Attitudes Bart Meuleman Jaak Billiet 173
Chapter 8 Causes of Generalized Social Trust William M. van der Veld Willem E. Saris 207
Chapter 9 Measurement Equivalence of the Dispositional Resistance to Change Scale Shaul Oreg Mahmut Bayazit Maria Vakola Luis Arciniega Achilles Armenakis Rasa Barkauskiene Nikos Bozionelos Yuka Fujimoto Luis González Jian Han Martina Hrebícková Nerina Jimmieson Jana Kordacová Hitoshi Mitsuhashi Boris Mlacic Ivana Feric Marina Kotrla Topic Sandra Ohly Per Øystein Saksvik Hilde Hetland Ingvild Berg Saksvik Karen van Dam 249
Section II Multilevel Analysis
Chapter 10 Perceived Economic Threat and Anti-Immigration Attitudes: Effects of Immigrant Group Size and Economic Conditions Revisited Bart Meuleman 281
Chapter 11 A Multilevel Regression Analysis on Work Ethic Hermann Dülmer 311
Chapter 12 Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling for Cross-Cultural Research: Exploring Resampling Methods to Overcome Small Sample Size Problems Remco Feskens Joop J. Hox 341
Section III Latent Class Analysis (LCA)
Chapter 13 Testing for Measurement Invariance with Latent Class Analysis Miloš Kankaraš Guy Moors Jeroen K. Vermunt 359
Chapter 14 A Multiple Group Latent Class Analysis of Religious Orientations in Europe Pascal Siegers 385
Section IV Item Response Theory (IRT)
Chapter 15 Using a Differential Item Functioning Approach to Investigate Measurement Invariance Rianne Janssen 415
Chapter 16 Using the Mixed Rasch Model in the Comparative Analysis of Attitudes Markus Quandt 433
Chapter 17 Random Item Effects Modeling for Cross-National Survey Data Jean-Paul Fox Josine Verhagen 461
Author Index 493
Subject Index 505