Table of Contents
Part I Languages, identities and human rights 1. Change and maintenance of Plurilingualism in the Russian Federation and the European Union by Janne Saarikivi and Reetta Toivanen.- 1.1 Plurilingualism at the Threshold of the 21st Century.- 1.1.1 Plurilinguistic Variation as an Object of Scientific Investigation.- 1.1.2 Linguistic Variation in Language Attrition and Shift Situations.- 1.1.3 Consequences of Language Loss.- 1.1.4 Language LossWhy Should Anyone Care?.- 1.1.5 Politicizing the Minority Language Issue.- 1.2 The European Union and Russian Federation as Multilingual Regions.- 1.2.1 The Present-day Linguistic Multitude.- 1.2.2 Counting Minorities and Defining Languages.- 1.2.3 Ideological Background of the Prevailing Linguistic Situation.- 1.2.4 European Language Nationalism and its Russian Variant.- 1.2.5 New Regionalisms.- References.- 2. The Global Extinction of Languages and its Consequences for Cultural Diversity by Suzanne Romaine.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Human Rights and Linguistic Human Rights.- 2.3 Why Language Matters.- 2.4 Conclusion.- References.- 3. The Death of Languages; the Death of Minority Cultures; the Death of a People’s Dignity by Theodore S. Orlin.- 3.1 Introduction: The Human Rights Dimension to the Loss of Language.- 3.2 Nationalism, Language and the Nation-stateThe Political Thirst for Linguistic Purity.- 3.3 The Development of Minority Protection as a Legal Obligation.- 3.4 The Case for the Destruction of Language as an Example of “Cultural Genocide” or “Ethnocide”.- 3.5 The Development of Human Rights Law as a Means of Protecting MinorityIinterestsFrom the Charter of the United Nations to the Creation of Treaty Monitoring Bodies.- 3.5.1 Charter of the United Nations.- 3.5.2 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.- 3.5.3 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.- 3.5.4 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.- 3.5.5 Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (1992).- 3.6 The Protection Afforded via the European System for the Protection of Human Rights.- 3.6.1 European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1992).- 6.2 European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, 1995.- 3.6.3 The Helsinki Accords and the Subsequent Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Documents.- 3.7 ILO Convention No. 169Convention Concerning.- Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (1989).- 3.8 Conclusion.- References.- Part II Case Studies on Cultural Change and Minority Language Maintenance: 4. Obstacles and Successes by Reetta Toivanen.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The Ham in a SandwichMinority Activists.- 4.3 The Sorbian Minority in Easternmost Germany.- 4.4 The Sámi in the Finnish Context.- 4.5 Activists and Claims for Recognition.- 4.6 Concrete Examples of Language Activism Today and Obstacles to them.- 4.7 Discussion.- References.- 5. Fallen ill in Political Draughts by Indrek Jääts.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 A Peasant Vernacular under Tsarist Rule.- 5.3 A Fluttering TakeoffIncrease in the Social Status of Komi-Permyak in the 1920s and 1930s.- 5.4 Abrupt Setbacks and Steady Decline: 1937–1989.- 5.5 A new Beginning? 1989–2012.- 5.5.1 Demography.- 5.5.2 Ethnic Identity.- 5.5.3 The Legal Status of the Language.- 5.5.4 Fields of use.- 5.6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 6. Finnic Minorities of Ingria by Natalia Kuznetsova, Elena Markus and Mehmed Muslimov.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Dialectal Structure and Historical Contacts.- 6.2.1 Votic.- 6.2.2 Ingrian.- 6.2.3 Ingrian Finnish.- 6.3 Present situation.- 6.3.1 Votic.- 6.3.2 Ingrian.- 6.3.3 Ingrian Finnish.- 6.4 Historical Background of the Present Situation.- 6.5 Language Maintenance.- 6.5.1 Votic.- 6.5.2 Ingrian.- 6.5.3 Ingrian Finnish.- 6.6 Conclusions.- 6.6.1 Ingria as a Whole.- 6.6.2 Votic.- 6.6.3 Ingrian.- 6.6.4 Ingrian Finnish.- References.- 7. The Challenge of Language by Lennard Sillanpää.- 7.1 Setting for the Survey.- 7.2 Administration of the Survey.- 7.3 The Minority Situation and Indigenous Cultural Revival.- 7.3.1 Relationship with other Cultures in the Region.- 7.3.2 Revival of Indigenous Religion, Skills and Culture.- 7.4 Status of Ancestral Language.- 7.4.1 Ancestral Language within Community.- 7.4.2 Teaching of Ancestral Language in Schools.- 7.4.3 Summary.- 7.5 Responding to the Challenge of Cultural Survival.- References.- 8. Uneven Steps to Literacy by Florian Siegl and Michael Rießler.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Current Language Landscapes.- 8.2.1 Current Kildin Sámi Language Landscapes.- 8.2.2 Current Skolt Sámi Language Landscapes.- 8.2.3 Current Forest Enets Language Landscapes.- 8.2.4 Current Dolgan Language Landscapes.- 8.3 Priests, Communists, RevitalizersThe Multiple Fractured History of Literacy Creation in the Russian Minority Context.- 8.3.1 The Starting PositionReligiously Driven Attempts to Create Literacy.- 8.3.2 Language Planning for the “Less-numerous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East”.- 8.3.3 The Latin-based Period.- 8.3.4 Back-transition from Latin to Cyrillic and Final Prohibition.- 8.3.5 Re-literarization and new Language Planning during Perestroika.- 8.4 How Dolgan and Forest Enets became Written LanguagesComparative Case Studies.- 8.4.1 The Dolgan way to Literacy.- 8.4.2 The Forest Enets way to Literacy.- 8.5 Comparison and DiscussionWho Creates Literacy for Whom and How?.- 8.5.1 Native and Non-native Specialists.- 8.5.2 Research Infrastructure for Language Planning.- 8.5.3 Publishers of Educational Material.- 8.5.4 The Conceptualization of Teaching Materials.- 8.6 Evaluation and ConclusionWhat are the Actual Results of Literacy Creation for Dolgan, Forest Enets and Kola Sámi?.- 8.6.1 Evaluation: Dolgan vs. Forest Enets.- 8.6.2 Evaluation: Kildin vs. Skolt.- 8.6.3 General Conclusion.- References.- Part III Why some Languages Survive. On Language Laws, Policies and Changing Attitudes.- 9. Explaining Language Loss by Ekaterina Gruzdeva.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Nivkh Traditional Culture.- 9.3 Historical and Socioeconomic Background.- 9.4 Literacy and Education.- 9.5 The Study of the Language.- 9.6 Language Situation.- 9.7 Conclusion.- References.- 10. Parliamentary Structures and their Impact on Empowering Minority Language Communities by Heiko F. Marten.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Parliaments and LanguagesFunctions and Roles.- 10.3 Prototypical Examples of Regionalism and their Impact on Minority Languages.- 10.3.1 The Sameting in NorwayA Minority Assembly Paving the way for new Policies.- 10.3.2 The Scottish Parliament: Gaelic Embraced as a Distinctive Marker of Regional Identity.- 10.3.3 The German LänderMinority Issues in Regional Parliaments where the Minority is not at the Heart of the Region’s Identity.- 10.3.4 South TyrolLong-term Experience with Autonomy which Reverses Minority and Majority.- 10.3.5 Latgalian in LatviaHow a Lack of Regional Parliamentarism Affects a Regional Language.- 10.4 ConclusionHow can Parliamentary Decentralization Contribute to the Wellbeing of Minority Languages?.- References.- 11. Evolution of Language Ideology in Post-Soviet Russia by Konstantin Zamyatin.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Russia’s Language Ideology in the 1990sContradictions and their Implications.- 11.2.1 The Soviet Legacies and new Western Imports in Russia’s Language Ideology.- 11.2.2 Hierarchy or Equality of Languages?.- 11.2.3 Bilingualism and Multilingualism as a Goal or a Result of the Policy?.- 11.2.4 State Languages as a Part of Nation-building or State-building? .- 11.2.5 Official Status as the Means of Language Promotion?.- 11.3 Official Status of Languages and Russia’s Language Policy.- 11.3.1 Russia’s Federal Design and Asymmetrical Status of Languages.- 11.3.2 The Scope of Official Bilingualism in the Republics.- 11.3.3 Co-official Status as an Obstacle for Implementation.- 11.3.4 Language Ideology at the Regional Levelthe Finno-Ugric Republics.- 11.4 Russia’s Language Ideology after 2000“Unity in Variety”?.- 11.4.1 Russia’s Nation-building Agenda, Nationalities and Language Policy.- 11.4.2 Overcoming the Contradictions in Language Ideology.- 11.4.3 Valorization of the Russian Language.- 11.5 Conclusion.- References.- 12. The Impact of Language Policy on Language Revitalization by Xabier Arzoz.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 The Spanish Linguistic Model.- 12.3 The Basque Country and its Language.- 12.4 Basque Language PolicyA Combination of Rights and Planning.- 12.5 Language Policy in the Field of Education.- 12.6 Basquization of Public Servants.- 12.7 Explaining the Impact.- 12.8 Lessons for the Russian Federation.- References.- A List of Relevant Agreements, Charters, Conventions, Declarations, Legal acts, Protocols, Treaties and Other Official Documents.- A.1 International.- A.2 European and Russian.- A.3 List of Russian Regional Documents
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The detailed information in this book about the sociolinguistic situation of the small peoples in the North, especially in Russia, is invaluable – nothing quite like this exists in English. The comparisons, both within Russia and between Russia and western Europe, are interesting and also unique, and the articles complement each other well (not always true of edited volumes). Many articles are multidisciplinary (history, law, linguistics, sociolinguistics, ethnography, cultural studies, political science); also unusual. The summaries and conclusions are well anchored theoretically. The introductory chapter puts it all in an even broader context
All those linguists, sociolinguists, ethnographers and anthropologists who work with Indigenous peoples, endangered languages, language maintenance, and, to some extent, cultural studies and ecology, can benefit. Likewise researchers on various aspects of Russia, including nationalism researchers. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, dr.phil.