Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition / Edition 8

Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition / Edition 8

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Oxford University Press, USA


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Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition / Edition 8

Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition is an introductory cultural anthropology text that explores the interplay of cultural creativity, human agency, and material constraint in the shaping of human cultural traditions. By focusing on contemporary applications of anthropology, the text encourages students to think critically about culture and to view the world in new ways. The authors incorporate cutting-edge theory into solid coverage of traditional topics and pay special attention to issues of power and inequality in the contemporary world, including gender inequalities, racism, ethnic discrimination, nationalism, caste, and class.

Covering the material in 14 chapters, the text fits well into a semester-long introductory course structure. "In Their Own Words" commentaries expose students to alternative perspectives from non-anthropologists and indigenous peoples, and "EthnoProfile" boxes provide maps and ethnographic summaries of each society discussed at length in the text. The text also features many pedagogical aids, including a running glossary, chapter summaries and key terms at chapter ends, and annotated suggestions for further reading.

· Addresses issues of power and inequality in the contemporary world-including racism, ethnic discrimination, nationalism, caste, and class
· Incorporates cutting-edge theory and gender and feminist anthropology throughout
· Takes an explicitly global approach, discussing ways in which the spread of capitalism has drastically reshaped how people everywhere live their lives
· Presents new voices and alternative perspectives from non-anthropologists and indigenous peoples through "In Their Own Words" commentaries
· Provides ethnographic summaries-with maps-of each society discussed at length in the text in "EthnoProfile" boxes
· Integrates additional helpful pedagogical aids including key terms, a running glossary, chapter summaries, maps, and annotated suggestions for further reading Covers the material in 14 chapters-an ideal text for a one-semester course

New to the Eighth Edition:
· Anthropology in Everyday Life boxes continually show students the relevance of cultural anthropology.
· For Review sections at chapter ends include discussion questions and prompts that connect chapters and support hands-on learning.
· "Arguing anthropology" critical thinking questions are available on the book's companion website.
· Complex discussions are more readable and accessible, presenting basic concepts more concretely before moving into theory and debate.
· New "In Their Own Words" commentaries expose students to alternative perspectives from non-anthropologists and indigenous peoples.
· An Instructor's Edition includes a transition guide and walk-through of the text.

· Companion Website featuring (1) Student Resources, including a study skills guide, flashcards, self-quizzes, chapter outlines, and helpful links; (2) Instructor Resources, including PowerPoint presentations for lectures, filmographies, activities, discussion questions, and guest editorials; and (3) a chapter on human evolution
· Computerized Test Bank and Instructor's Manual on CD
· Cartridges for Course Management Systems

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199760060
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 01/21/2011
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 448
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 10.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents



1 What Is Anthropology?
What Is the Concept of Culture?
What Makes Anthropology a Cross-Disciplinary Discipline?
Biological Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology Archaeology Applied Anthropology Medical Anthropology The Uses of Anthropology Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

Part I The Tools of Cultural Anthropology

2 Why Is the Concept of Culture Important?
How Do Anthropologists Define Culture?
Culture, History, and Human Agency Why Do Cultural Differences Matter?
What Is Ethnocentrism?
Is It Possible to Avoid Ethnocentric Bias?
What Is Cultural Relativism?
How Can Cultural Relativity Improve Our Understanding of Controversial Cultural Practices?
Genital Cutting, Gender, and Human Rights Genital Cutting as a Valued Ritual Culture and Moral Reasoning Did Their Culture Make Them Do It?
Does Culture Explain Everything?
The Promise of the Anthropological Perspective Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

3 How Do Cultural Anthropologists Learn about Contemporary Ways of Life?
Why Do Fieldwork?
The Fieldwork Experience A Meeting of Cultural Traditions Ethnographic Fieldwork: How Has Anthropologists' Understanding Changed?
Applying Positivist Methods to Anthropology Questioning the Positivist Approach The Reflexive Approach Multisited Fieldwork What Is the Dialectic of Fieldwork?
Interpretation and Translation Beyond the Dialectic The Dialectic of Fieldwork: Some Examples Ruptures in Communication How Have Global Changes Affected Fieldwork?
The Effects of Fieldwork How Does Fieldwork Affect the Researcher?
The Humanizing Effects of Fieldwork Where Does Anthropological Knowledge Come From?
Anthropological Knowledge as Open-Ended Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

4 Anthropology, History, and the Explanation of Cultural Diversity Capitalism, Colonialism, and the Origins of Ethnography Capitalism and Colonialism The Fur Trade in North America The Slave and Commodities Trades Colonialism and Modernity The Colonial Political Economy Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter What Explains Human Cultural Variation?
Evolutionary Typologies: The Nineteenth Century Unilineal Cultural Evolutionism Social Structural Typologies: The British Emphasis Origins in the Colonial Setting The Classification of Political Structures Structural-Functional Theory Doing without Typologies: Culture Area Studies in America Postcolonial Realities Studying Forms of Human Society Today The Comparative Study of Processes Chapter Summary Key Terms For Review Suggested Readings

Part II The Resources of Culture

5 Language Why Do Anthropologists Study Language?
Language and Culture Talking about Experience What Makes Human Language Distinctive?
What Does It Mean to "Learn" a Language?
Language and Context Does Language Affect the Way We See the World?
What Are the Components of Language?
Phonology: Sounds Morphology: Word Structure Syntax: Sentence Structure Semantics: Meaning Pragmatics: Language in Contexts of Use Ethnopragmatics What Happens When Languages Come into Contact?
Pidgin and Creole Negotiating Meaning Linguistic Inequality Language Habits of African Americans Language Ideology Language Habits of Women and Men What Is Lost If a Language Dies?
Language and Truth Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

6 Culture and Individuals Perception Schemas and Prototypes Perception and Convention Illusion Visuality: Learning to Look Cognition Cognitive Capacities and Intelligence Reason and the Reasoning Process Culture and Logic Emotion The Cultural Construction of Emotion Emotion in Oceania Motivation Socialization and Enculturation The Sociohistorical View Is Cognitive Development the Same for Everyone?
Self/Personality/Subjectivity Avatars, Alts, and the Self in Second Life How Do Violence and Trauma Alter Our View of Ourselves?
Structural Violence Trauma Chosen Trauma How Does Individual Psychology Depend on Context?
Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

7 How Do We Make Meaning?
What Is Play?
How Do Anthropologists Think about Play?
What Are Some Effects of Play?
Do People Play by the Rules?
Culture and Sport Sport in the Nation-State Sport as Metaphor Baseball and Masculinity in Cuba What Is Art?
How Can Art Be Defined?
"But Is It Art?"
"She's Fake": Art and Authenticity Hip-Hop in Japan Sculpture and the Baule Gbagba Dance The Mass Media: A Television Serial in Egypt What Is Myth?
How Does Myth Reflect-and Shape-Social Action?
Do Myths Help Us Think?
What Is Ritual?
A Definition of Ritual A Birthday Party as Ritual What Is Ritual Action?
What Are Rites of Passage?
How Are Play and Ritual Complementary?
How Do Cultural Practices Combine Play, Art, Myth, and Ritual?
Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

8 Worldview What Is a Worldview?
How Do Anthropologists Study Worldviews?
What Are Some Key Metaphors for Constructing Worldviews?
Societal Metaphors Organic Metaphors Technological Metaphors What Is Religion?
Religion and Communication Religious Organization Worldviews in Practice: Two Case Studies Coping with Misfortune: Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the Azande Azande Witchcraft Beliefs Dealing with Witches Are There Patterns of Witchcraft Accusation?
Coping with Misfortune: Seeking Higher Consciousness among the Channelers Maintaining and Changing a Worldview How Do People Cope with Change?
The Bwiti Religion Kwaio Religion How Are Worldviews Used as Instruments of Power?
Is Secularism a Worldview?
Religion and Secularism Muslim Headscarves in France: A Case Study Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

Part III The Organization of Material Life

9 Culture and Power Who Has the Power to Act?
How Do Anthropologists Study Politcs?
Coercion Coercion in Societies without States?
Power and National Identity: A Case Study Biopower and Governmentality Trying to Elude Governmentality: A Case Study The Ambiguity of Power Power as an Independent Entity The Power of the Imagination The Power of the Weak Bargaining for Reality Marriage: Bargaining and Gender in Morocco Peasant Resistance in Malaysia History as a Prototype of and for Political Action Negotiating the Meaning of History Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

10 Making a Living Subsistence Strategies What Are the Connections between Culture and Livelihood?
Self-Interest, Institutions, and Morals What Are Production, Distribution, and Consumption?
How Are Goods Distributed and Exchanged?
Neoclassical Economics and Capitalism Modes of Exchange Does Production Drive Economic Activities?
Labor Modes of Production The Role of Conflict in Material Life Applying Production Theory to Social and Cultural Life Why Do People Consume What They Do?
The Internal Explanation: Malinowski and Basic Human Needs The External Explanation: Cultural Ecology Food Storage and Sharing How Does Culture Construct Human Needs?
The Original Affluent Society The Abominations of Leviticus Banana Leaves in the Trobriand Islands The Cultural Construction of Utility Consumption Studies Today Coca-Cola in Trinidad The Anthropology of Food and Nutrition Interplay between the Meaningful and the Material Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

Part IV Systems of Relationships

11 Where Do Our Relatives Come From, and Why Do They Matter?
How Do Human Beings Organize Interdependence?
What Is Friendship?
American College Student Friendship and Friendliness What Is Kinship?
Sex, Gender, and Kinship How Many Sexes Are There?
Understanding Different Kinship Systems What Is the Role of Descent in Kinship Bilateral Kindreds Unilineal Descent Groups What Role Do Lineages Play in Descent?
Lineage Membership The Logic of Lineage Relationships Patrilineages Matrilineages Matrilineality, Electoral Politics, and the Art of the Neutral Partisan What Are Kinship Terminologies?
Criteria for Distinguishing Kin Kinship and Alliance through Marriage What Is Adoption?
Adoption in Highland Ecuador How Flexible Can Relatedness Be?
Negotiation of Kin Ties among the Ju/'hoansi Iñupiaq Relatedness European American Kinship and New Reproductive Technologies Compadrazgo in Latin America How Can Practices of Relatedness Produce Unexpected Outcomes?
Conflicting Obligations among the Iteso Assisted Reproduction in Israel Organ Transplantation and the Creation of New Relatives Kinship as Social Idiom What Are Sodalities?
Secret Societies in Western Africa Membership and Initiation Use of the Kinship Idiom The Thoma Secret Soceity: A Microcosm The Meaning of Secrecy in a Secret Society The Dimensions of Group Life Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

12 Why Do People Get Married and Have Families?
How Do Anthropologists Define Marriage?
Woman Marriage and Ghost Marriage among the Nuer Marriage as a Social Process Patterns of Residence after Marriage Single and Plural Spouses Monogamy Polygyny Polyandry Polyandry, Sexuality, and the Reproductive Capacity of Women Fraternal Polyandry Associated Polyandry Secondary Marriage The Distinction between Sexuality and Reproductive Capacity What Is the Connection between Marriage and Economic Exchange?
Brothers and Sisters in Cross-cultural Perspective Brothers and Sisters in a Matrilineal Society Brothers and Sisters in a Patrilineal Society How Do Anthropologists Think about Family Structure The Family Defined The Nuclear Family The Polygynous Family Competition in the Polygynous Family Extended and Joint Families How Do Families Change over Time?
Divorce and Remarriage Divorce in Guider Grounds for Divorce Separation among Inuit Blended Families Breaking Up Complex Households International Migration and the Family Families by Choice The Flexibility of Marriage How Do Sexual Practices Differ?
Heterosexual Practices Other Sexual Practices Female Sexual Practices in Mombasa Male Sexual Practices in Nicaragua Love, Marriage, and HIV/AIDS in Nigeria Sexuality and Power Key Terms Chapter Summary Suggested Readings

Part V From Local to Global

13 What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Social Inequality?
Gender Class Caste Caste in India Caste Struggle in Contemporary India Caste in Western Africa The Value of Caste as an Analytic Category Race Race in Colonial Oaxaca Mobility in the Casta System Colorism in Nicaragua Ethnicity Nation and Nation-State Australian Nationalism Naturalizing Discourses The Paradox of Essentialized Identities Nation Building in a Postcolonial World: Fiji Nationalism and Its Dangers Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings

14 What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Globalization?
What Happened to the Global Economy after the Cold War?
Cultural Processes in a Global World Globalization and the Nation-State Migration, Transborder Identities, and Long-Distance Nationalism Flexible Citizenship and the Postnational Ethos Anthropology and Multicultural Politics in the New Europe Are Human Rights Universal?
Human Rights Discourse as the Global Language of Social Justice Rights versus Culture Rights to Culture Rights as Culture How Can Culture Help in Thinking about Rights?
Violence Against Women in Hawaii Child Prostitution in Thailand Cultural Imperialism or Cultural Hybridization?
Cultural Hybridity Can We Be at Home in a Global World?
Cosmopolitanism Friction Border Thinking Why Study Anthropology?
Chapter Summary For Review Key Terms Suggested Readings




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