Current Developments in Anthropological Genetics: Volume 1 Theory and Methods

Current Developments in Anthropological Genetics: Volume 1 Theory and Methods

by James H. Mielke (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1980)

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The papers in this volume were presented as part of the University of Kansas Department of Anthropology Distinguished Lecture Program on Anthro­ pological Genetics. Consecutively, each contributor spent approximately a week on the campus at Lawrence participating in a seminar. The contributors to this volume were not on campus at one time, but visited us on alternating weeks; hence, a symposium-type interchange was not possible between all participants. However, the students and faculty of Kansas University acted as a sounding board. This volume can be considered a companion and continuation of Methods and Theories of Anthropological Genetics, which was based upon a symposium on the state of the art in 1971. This present volume reflects what we consider to be some of the advances and current developments in anthropological genetics since 1973. Emphasis has shifted, to some degree, away from population struc­ ture analysis (as depicted in Crawford and Workman) to genetic epidemiology. However, population structure still remains a fertile and ongoing area of research with many theoretical questions still remaining unanswered.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461330868
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 10/12/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1980
Pages: 436
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

I: Historical Approaches to Anthropological Genetics.- 1. Voices of Our Ancestors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Basic Questions.- 3. Methodological Approaches.- 3.1. Aging and Sexing of Skeletal Material.- 3.2. Improved Life Tables.- 3.3. Locational and Distributional Aspects of Prehistoric Populations.- 3.4. Social Stratification.- 3.5. Signal vs. Noise.- 3.6. On the Possible Action of Natural Selection, and Population Control Mechanisms.- 3.7. General Results.- 4. Implications for Modern Genetic Studies.- 5. Summary and Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2. Historical Demography: Applications in Anthropological Genetics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Data Sets.- 3. Research Problems.- 3.1. Population Structure.- 3.2. Selection.- 4. Alternative Approaches for Historical Populations.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- II: Evolutionary Perspectives.- 3. Perspectives on the Theory of Social Evolution.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Theory in Sociobiology.- 3. Inbreeding and Relationship.- 4. Gene Frequency Change.- 5. Hamilton’s Inequality.- 6. Nonlinear Relationships between Resources and Fitness.- 7. Population Structure and Group Selection.- 8. Population Genetics and Culture.- 8.1. Ease of Learning.- 8.2. Father Absence.- 9. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 4. The Anthropological Usefulness of Highly Polymorphic Systems: HLA and Immunoglobulin Allotypes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Results and Discussion.- References.- Additional References.- 5. Natural Selection and Random Variation in Human Evolution.- 1. Variation and Selection.- 2. Simulation.- 3. Conclusions.- References.- 6. The Simulation of Human Fertility: Strategies in Demographic Modeling.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Computer Simulation of Fertility.- 2.1. KINSIM.- 2.2. POPSIM.- 2.3. CHOREA.- 2.4. FERTSIM.- 3. Some Fertility Simulation Experiments.- 3.1. Experiment 1.- 3.2. Experiment 2.- 4. Discussion.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- III: Analytical Theory.- 7. The Genetic Structure of Subdivided Human Populations: A Review.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods of Genetic Analysis.- 2.1. Genetic Distance Measures.- 2.2. Measures of Population Differentiation: F Statistics.- 2.3. Clines.- 3. Migration Models.- 3.1. Discrete Models.- 3.2. Continuous Models.- 4. Display Methods.- 4.1. Topology.- 4.2. Trees.- 5. Other Types of Subdivision.- 5.1. Hierarchical Subdivision.- 5.2. Temporal Subdivision.- 6. Discussion.- 6.1. Concordance of Data Types.- 6.2. Determinants of Population Structure.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 8. Distance Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Population Structure.- 1.2. The Concept of Distance.- 1.3. The Scope of This Chapter.- 2. Distance Analysis.- 2.1. Quantitative Traits.- 2.2. Qualitative Traits.- 3. Multidimensional Scaling.- 3.1. Multidimensional Scaling of Symmetric Matrices of Similarities or Dissimilarities.- 3.2. Multidimensional Scaling of Asymmetric Matrices.- 3.3. Simultaneous Analysis of Several Matrices of Similarity or Dissimilarity.- 3.4. Cluster Analysis.- 4. Envoi.- References.- 9. Pedigree Analysis of Complex Models.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Synopsis.- 3. General Theory.- 4. Specific Models.- 4.1. Transmission Functions.- 4.2. Penetrance Functions.- 4.3. Population Frequencies for Individuals.- 4.4. Assortative Mating.- 4.5. Linear Models.- 4.6. The Observation.- 5. Recursions.- 5.1. Major Gene.- 5.2. Major Gene with Assortative Mating.- 5.3. Polygenic with Assortative Mating and Common-Sib Environment.- 5.4. General Mixed Model.- 5.5. Looped Pedigrees.- 5.6. An Uncle—Nephew Common Environment.- 5.7. Analytic Recursions.- 6. Practical Aspects and Miscellaneous Problems.- 6.1. Optimization of Algorithms.- 6.2. Pedigree Structure and Sampling Procedures.- 6.3. Comparison of Models through Likelihood Analysis.- 6.4. Miscellaneous Problems.- (a) Twins.- (b) Sequential phenomena.- 7. Summary.- References.- 10. Current Directions in Genetic Epidemiology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Heterogeneity Problem.- 3. Some Common Mechanisms.- 4. Detecting Major Loci.- 4.1. Segregation Analysis.- 4.2. Linkage Analysis.- 5. Resolution of Polygenic and Cultural Inheritance.- 5.1. History of the Path Analytic Models.- 5.2. The TAU Model.- 5.3. The BETA Model.- 5.4. Statistical Estimation and Hypothesis Testing.- 5.5. Variable Family Structure.- 5.6. Future Direction of Research.- 6. Discussion.- References.- IV: Analytical Theory: illustrated by Example.- 11. Segregation Analysis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Mathematical Formulation of Genetic Models.- 2.1. Joint Genotypic Distribution of Mating Individuals.- 2.2. Relationship between Phenotype and Genotype.- 2.3. Mode of Inheritance.- 2.4. Sampling Scheme.- 3. The Likelihood Method.- 3.1. Likelihood of Randomly Sampled Data.- 3.2. Likelihood when Sampling via Selected Probands.- 3.3. Parameter Estimation and Testing Hypotheses.- 4. Examples of Segregation Analysis.- 4.1. Segregation of Hypercholesterolemia in a Large Pedigree.- 4.2. Segregation of Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Taste Sensitivity.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- 12. Path Analysis of Quantitative Inheritance.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Linear Model.- 3. Social Homogamy.- 4. Phenotypic Homogamy.- 5. Mixed Homogamy.- 6. Nuclear Families.- 7. Other Relatives.- 8. Statistical Analysis.- 9. Examples.- 9.1. Palmar Ridge Counts.- 9.2. Skin Color.- 9.3. Periodontal Health.- 9.4. Human IQ.- 10. Discussion.- References.- 13. Half-Sib Analysis of Quantitative Data.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Variables and Notation.- 3. Correlation between Half-Sibs.- 4. Estimation of Parameters.- 5. Models and Populations.- 6. Half-Sib Analysis.- 7. Summary and Conclusion.- 8. Appendix: Hierarchical Classification and Intraclass Correlation.- 8.1. The Linear Model.- 8.2. Analysis of Variance.- 8.3. Expected Values of Mean Squares.- 8.4. Intraclass Correlation.- 8.5. The Genetics Connection.- 8.6. Genetic Variance between and within Sibships.- References.- 14. Mental Abilities: A Family Study.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Historical Developments.- 3. Previous Family Studies.- 4. Genetics of Spatial Ability.- 5. Hawaii Family Study of Cognition.- 5.1. Factor Structure.- 5.2. Age and Sex Differences.- 5.3. Assortative Marriage.- 5.4. Regression of Midchild on Midparent.- 5.5. Spatial Ability.- 6. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 15. Current Developments in Anthropological Genetics: Achievements and Gaps.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Historical Material.- 3. Evolution.- 4. Analytical Theory.- 5. Overview.- 5.1. New Polymorphisms.- 5.2. Ecogenetic Studies.- 5.3. Some Gaps.- 6. Conclusion.- References.

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