Current Developments in Anthropological Genetics: Ecology and Population Structure

Current Developments in Anthropological Genetics: Ecology and Population Structure

by Michael H. Crawford, James H. Mielke

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461567714
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 06/04/2013
Series: Current developments in anthropological genetics , #2
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
Pages: 525
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

1. Primate Social Organization, Ecology, and Genetic Variation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Comparative Method: Fantasy and Fact.- 3. Models of Ecology and Behavior.- 4. Implications for Genetic Research.- 5. Population Structure of Cayo Santiago.- 5.1. History and Demography.- 5.2. Social Group Organization.- 5.3. R-matrix Analysis.- 5.4. Results.- 5.5. Discussion.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Population Structures of Ghanzi and Ngamiland !Kung.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Previous Research.- 3. Study Populations.- 3.1. Ngamiland !Kung.- 3.2. Ghanzi !Kung.- 4. Methods.- 5. Fertility.- 6. Social Patterns.- 7. Mortality.- 8. Conclusions.- References.- 3. Population Structure of Circumpolar Groups of Siberia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods.- 2.1. Analytical Approaches.- 2.2. Populations.- 3. Results.- 3.1. The Broad Circumpolar Picture.- 3.2. Siberian Population Structure.- 3.3. Eskimo Population Structure.- 3.4. MATFIT.- 3.5. RST.- 3.6. Intrapopulational Analysis.- 4. Conclusions.- 4.1. Population History.- 4.2. Geographical Distance Factors.- 4.3. Cultural and Demographic Factors.- References.- 4. Ecology and Biological Structure of Pastoral Isseqqamaren Tuareg.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Pastoralists in an Hyperarid Area.- 3. Social and Geographic Structures.- 3.1. An Ecological Axis.- 3.2. A Parental Axis.- 3.3. The Feudal Hierarchy.- 4. Other Aspects of Isseqqamaren Dynamics.- 4.1. Social Status.- 4.2. Agriculture.- 4.3. Social and Economic Change.- 5. A Field Example of Biological Studies in Tuareg Isseqqamaren: Marriages in Ideles.- 5.1. Ideles: Habitat and Population.- 5.2. Demographic Aspects.- 5.3. Genetic Aspects.- 6. The Tuareg Isseqqamaren Gene Pool: Preliminary Results for Some Genetic Markers.- 6.1. Red Cell Antigens.- 6.2. Hemoglobin and Enzyme Polymorphisms.- 6.3. Haptoglobin and Group Component (Vitamin D Binding Protein) Subtypes.- 6.4. Immunoglobin Gm Antigen Polymorphisms.- 7. Conclusion.- References.- 5. The Population Structure of the Romany Gypsies.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Historical Background.- 3. Demography.- 3.1. Consanguinity.- 4. Genetic Structure.- 4.1. ABO Blood Groups.- 4.2. Rhesus (D and d Genes Only).- 4.3. MN.- 4.4. Haptoglobins.- 4.5. Red Cell Enzymes.- 4.6. Genetic Distance.- 5. Discussion and Conclusion.- References.- 6. Genetic Architecture of Swidden Agricultural Tribes from the Lowland Rain Forests of South America.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Swidden Agriculture and its Social Concomitants.- 2.1. The Ecological Setting.- 2.2. Swidden Agriculture.- 2.3. The Village as an Economic and Social Unit.- 2.4. Village Demography.- 2.5. Fission, Fusion, and Exogamy.- 3. The Survival of New Mutations.- 3.1. Rare Variants and Private Polymorphisms.- 3.2. The Age of a Mutant Allele.- 3.3. Estimation of the Mutation Rate.- 3.4. Complications and Caveats.- 4. Fission Effects in the Formation of New Villages.- 4.1. Fission as a Bottleneck in Effective Population Size.- 4.2. Village Fission in the Yanomama: A Case Study.- 5. The Genetic Consequences of Fusion and Exogamy.- 5.1. Genetic Disequilibrium Within Villages.- 5.2. Internal Correlation as a Function of Village Size.- 5.3. Homogenization as a Consequence of Genetic Exchange.- 6. The Production of Tribal Infrastructure and the Evolutionary Radiation of Tribes.- 6.1. The Balance Between Cohesive and Dispersive Forces.- 6.2. Dialect Clusters in the Yanomama.- 6.3. Miniclusters in the Yanomame and Makiritare.- 6.4. Fragmentation and the Network of Relationship.- 7. A Prospectus for Future Work.- 7.1. A Brief Recapitulation.- 7.2. The Need for a Formal Predictive Theory.- 7.3. The Neutrality of Rare Variants.- 7.4. The Ecological Demography of Populations.- 7.5. The Fission-Fusion-Exogamy Dynamic.- 7.6. A Final Note.- References.- 7. Genetic Structure of the Semai.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Semai Senoi People.- 3. Semai Local Populations.- 4. Semai Marriage Patterns.- 5. Semai Demography.- 6. Fission-Fusion and Lineal/Kinship Effect.- 7. Kin-Structured Migration.- 8. Genetic Variation.- 9. Conclusions.- References.- 8. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Biological Variation on Bougainville Island.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials.- 3. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis.- 4. Results.- 5. Discussion.- References.- 9. Linguistic, Ecological, and Genetic Differentiation in New Guinea and the Western Pacific.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The North Solomons.- 3. New Guinea.- 4. The Gm Hypothesis.- 5. Kar Kar Island.- 6. Northern Populations in PNG.- 7. A Broader Picture.- References.- 10. Historical Population Structure of the Åland Islands, Finland.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Sources for Fenno-Scandian Historical Demography.- 3. Historical Background.- 3.1. Geographic Location.- 3.2. Early History.- 3.3. Åland after 1700.- 4. Åland Population Structure: Parish Level.- 4.1. 1750-1799.- 4.2. 1800-1849.- 4.3. 1850-1899.- 4.4. 1900-1949.- 5. Åland Population Structure: Village Level.- 5.1. Marital Migration.- 5.2. Parent-Offspring Migration.- 6. Household and Family in Åland.- 6.1. Household Size in Åland.- 6.2. Family Size in Åland.- 6.3. Genetic Consequences of Trends in Ålandic Households.- 7. Summary and Conclusions.- 7.1. Parish Level.- 7.2. Village Level.- 7.3. Village Level Matrimonial and Parent-Offspring Migration.- 7.4. Comparison of Parish Level and Village Level Analyses.- 7.5. Household and Family.- References.- 11. Genetic Microevolution in the Åland Islands, Finland.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Genetic Analysis.- 2.1. Åland’s Relationship to Finland and Sweden.- 2.2. Interparish Genetic Relationships.- 2.3. Heterozygosity.- 2.4. Clines.- 3. Migration Analysis.- 3.1. Birthplace Concordance Patterns.- 3.2. Predicted Genetic Relationships among Parishes.- 4. Migration—Genetics Interaction.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 12. Population Structure of Farming Communities of Northern England.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Northumberland.- 2.1. Models of Population Structure.- 2.2. Isonomy.- 2.3. Mid-Northumberland: Summary.- 3. The Coming of Industry.- 4. Cumbria.- 4.1. Inbreeding and Kinship.- 4.2. Isolation by Distance.- 4.3. Migration Analysis.- 4.4. Cumbria: Summary.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- 13. Population Structure and Anthropometric Variation in Ireland during the 1930’s.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Anthropometric Traits in Population Studies.- 2.1. Indirect Assessment of Population Structure.- 2.2. Bioassay of Kinship From Anthropometric Traits.- 3. Materials, Hypotheses, and Methods.- 3.1. Demographic History.- 3.2. Materials.- 3.3. Hypotheses and Methods.- 4. Results and Discussion.- 4.1. Age-Related Variation.- 4.2. Population Differentiation.- 4.3. Correlation of Anthropometric and Geographic Distances.- 4.4. Isolation by Distance.- 4.5. Simulation of Population Structure.- 4.6. Residual Analysis.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- 14. Population Structure of a Religious Isolate: The Dariusleut Hutterites of Alberta.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Population Genetic Structure.- 2.1. HLA Variability in Dariusleut Hutterites.- 3. Perspectives.- References.- 15. Kinship and Inbreeding in Populations of Middle Eastern Origin and Controls.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Degrees of Inbreeding.- 3. Continuous Migration.- 4. Discontinuous Migration.- 5. Artas.- 6. Kallarwan.- 7. Discussion.- 8. Summary.- References.- 16. The Population Structure of an Urban Area in Britain.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Background to the Present Study.- 1.2. Review of Previous Work on Urban Marital Mobility.- 1.3. The Orientation of the Research.- 2. Methods.- 2.1. The Reading Marriage Survey 1974.- 3. Results and Discussion.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Inferences from Marital Mobility Patterns to Genetical Structure.- 3.3. Inferences from Marital Mobility Patterns to Community Structure.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 17. New Developments in Anthropological Genetics: Accomplishments and Challenges.

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