Current Ornithology

Current Ornithology

by Richard Johnston (Editor)

Paperback(1983)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461567837
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 04/30/2013
Series: Current Ornithology , #351
Edition description: 1983
Pages: 425
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

1 Comparative Avian Demography.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Phenomenology and Hypotheses.- 3. Demographic Evolution.- 3.1. Criterion for Fitness.- 3.2. Parameterization.- 3.3. Constraint and Optimization.- 3.4. The Constraint Function.- 3.5. The Optimization Criterion.- 3.6. Interpreting Differences in Life-History Patterns.- 4. Density Dependence.- 5. Demographic Evolution in Varying Environments.- 5.1. r- and K-Selection.- 5.2. Bet Hedging.- 6. Correlated Environmental Factors.- 7. Discussion.- References.- 2 The Determination of Clutch Size in Precocial Birds.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Precocial Development.- 3. Clutch Size Theory and Terminology.- 4. Patterns in Clutch Size Variation.- 5. Factors Limiting Clutch Size.- 5.1. Egg Formation Ability.- 5.2. Parental Behavior.- 5.3. Incubation Ability.- 5.4. Nest Prédation.- 5.5. Explanations of Geographic and Seasonal Trends.- 6. Discussion.- 6.1. The Web of Causation.- 6.2. Levels of Explanation.- 6.3. Complications.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 3 Structure and Function of Avian Eggs.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Mass and Contents of Eggs.- 2.1. Mass and Contents of Fresh Eggs.- 2.2. Contents of Pipped Eggs.- 3. Gas Exchange.- 3.1. Exchange of Water.- 3.2. Exchange of O2 and CO2.- 3.3. Adaptation to Diverse Gaseous Environments.- 4. Gas Exchange and the Eggshell.- 4.1. Eggshell.- 4.2. Pores.- 4.3. Modification of Eggshells in Various Environments.- 5. Summary.- References.- 4 The Origin of Birds and of Avian Flight.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Nature of Archaeopteryx.- 2.1. Bipedalism.- 2.2. Flight.- 3. The Origin of Birds.- 3.1. The Pseudosuchian Origin.- 3.2. Ornithischian Relationship.- 3.3. Crocodilian Relationships.- 3.4. The Coelurosaurian Origin.- 4. The Origin of Avian Flight.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- 5 The Great Plains Hybrid Zones.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Delimiting the Plains.- 1.2. What is Hybridization?.- 2. Accounts of Hybridizing Taxa.- 2.1. Otus.- 2.2. Coiaptes.- 2.3. Centurus.- 2.4. Myiarchus.- 2.5. Contopus.- 2.6. Cyanocitta.- 2.7. Parus (Chickadees).- 2.8. Parus (Crested Titmice).- 2.9. Sialia.- 2.10. Sturneiia.- 2.11. Icterus.- 2.12. Pheucticus.- 2.13. Passerina.- 2.14. Pipilo.- 3. Discussion.- 3.1. Stability of Zones.- 3.2. Increased Variability in Zones.- 3.3. Suture-Zones in the Great Plains.- 3.4. Taxonomic Comments.- References.- 6 Species Concepts and Speciation Analysis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Species Concepts.- 2.1. The “Biological Species” Concept.- 2.2. Are “Biological Species” the Units of Evolution?.- 2.3. A Proposed Species Concept for Ornithology.- 3. Speciation Analysis.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. How Are Areas of Endemism Determined?.- 3.3. How Is the History of Areas of Endemism Determined?.- 3.4. How Might General Area-Cladograms Be Explained?.- 3.5. Conclusions.- References.- 7 Bird Chromosomes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Diploid Number Problem.- 2.1. Utility of Cell Culture Procedures.- 2.2. Meiotic Procedures.- 3. Differential Banding Procedures.- 3.1. C-Banding.- 3.2. G-Bands.- 3.3. R-Banding.- 3.4. NOR-Banding.- 3.5. Sequential Banding.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8 Genetic Structure and Avian Systematics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods of Data Acquisition and Analysis.- 2.1. Electrophoretic Studies.- 2.2. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibria.- 2.3. Genie Heterozygosity.- 2.4. Genetic Distance between Taxa.- 2.5. Analysis of Genetic Variance.- 3. Genetic Data and Their Role in Systematics.- 3.1. Relationship between Genetic Structure and Higher Taxa.- 3.2. Genetic Structure at the Species Level.- 3.3. Genetic Structure within Species.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 9 Phylogeny and Classification of Birds Based on the Data of DNA-DNA Hybridization.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The DNA-DNA Hybridization Technique.- 2.1. DNA Structure and Properties.- 2.2. The Sequence Organization of the Genome in Relation to DNA-DNA Hybridization.- 2.3. Factors That Determine the Rate and Extent of Reassociation, and the Thermal Stability of DNA-DNA Hybrids.- 2.4. The Hydroxyapatite (HAP) Column Chromatography Procedure.- 3. The Analysis of DNA-DNA Hybridization Data.- 3.1. Definitions.- 3.2. The Average Rate of Base Substitution.- 3.3. Mathematical Analysis of DNA-DNA Data.- 3.4. A “Robust” Clustering Method for DNA Hybridization Data.- 3.5. Reliability, Sensitivity, and Reciprocity.- 4. Homology.- 5. The Evolution of DNA.- 5.1. The Uniform Average Rate of DNA Evolution.- 5.2. The New Zealand Wrens (Acanthisittidae).- 5.3. The Hawaiian Honeycreepers.- 5.4. The Australo-Papuan Fairy-Wrens (Maluridae).- 5.5. Genetic Rate vs. Morphological Rates.- 5.6. Congruence between Morphological and DNA-DNA Hybridization Data.- 5.7. Generation Time.- 6. The Calibration Problem.- 7. Adaptive Radiation.- 8. Categorical Equivalence.- 9. Classification.- References.- 10 Experimental Analysis of Avian Limb Morphogenesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Mapping the Prospective Skeletal Areas.- 3. Regulation along Proximo-distal and Antero-posterior Axes.- 4. The ZPA and Experimental Analysis of Control of Antero-posterior Differentiation of the Wing.- 4.1. The ZPA and Normal Development.- 4.2. The Polar Coordinate Model and the Chick Wing Bud.- 5. Somite and Limb Bud Developmental Relations.- 5.1. Developmental Dependence.- 5.2. The Somitic Contribution of the Musculature.- 6. Innervation and Limb Development.- 6.1. Role of Limb Pattern in Establishing Innervation.- 6.2. Relationship between Neurons and Peripheral Conditions.- 6.3. Relationship between Axons and Their Targets.- 6.4. Innervation and the Pattern of Skeletal Differentiation.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 11 Variation in Mate Fidelity in Monogamous Birds.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Which Birds Are Monogamous?.- 3. Types of Variations in Mate Fidelity.- 3.1. Extrapair Copulations.- 3.2. Circumstantial Evidence for an EPC Strategy.- 4. Opportunistic and Facultative Polygyny.- 4.1. North American Passerines.- 4.2. European Passerines.- 4.3. Non-Passerines.- 5. Polyandry.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 12 The Evolution of Differential Bird Migration.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Winter Distribution of Eastern Migratory Juncos.- 3. Single-Factor Hypotheses for the Evolution of Differential Migration.- 3.1. The Body-Size Hypothesis.- 3.2. The Dominance Hypothesis.- 3.3. The Arrival-Time Hypothesis.- 4. A Multifactor Hypothesis for the Evolution of Differential Migration.- 4.1. The Migration-Threshold Hypothesis.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- Author Index.- Bird Name Index.

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