ISBN-10:
3527409416
ISBN-13:
9783527409419
Pub. Date:
03/29/2010
Publisher:
Wiley
Dark Energy / Edition 1

Dark Energy / Edition 1

by Yun Wang

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783527409419
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 03/29/2010
Series: Wiley Series in Cosmology Series
Pages: 256
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.60(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Yun Wang is a leading expert in dark energy research, with over thirty refereed publications on this subject. She has worked on advancing the methods for interpreting dark energy data, and developing optimal observational strategies for probing the nature of dark energy. She is an associate professor at the University of Oklahoma. Before that, she worked as a postdoctoral researcher at Fermilab Astrophysics Center and the Department of Astrophysical Sciences at Princeton University.

Table of Contents

Preface XI

1 The Dark Energy Problem 1

1.1 Evidence for Cosmic Acceleration 1

1.1.1 The Basic Cosmological Picture 1

1.1.2 First Direct Observational Evidence for Cosmic Acceleration 4

1.1.3 Current Observational Evidence for Cosmic Acceleration 8

1.2 Fundamental Questions about Cosmic Acceleration 10

2 The Basic Theoretical Framework 15

2.1 Einstein's Equation 15

2.2 Cosmological Background Evolution 16

2.3 Cosmological Perturbations 18

2.3.1 Cosmological Perturbations: Nonrelativistic Case 18

2.3.2 Cosmological Perturbations: Generalized Case 22

2.4 Framework for Interpreting Data 31

2.4.1 Model-Independent Constraints 31

2.4.2 Using the Fisher Matrix to Forecast Future Constraints 32

2.4.3 Using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method in a likelihood Analysis 32

2.4.4 Self-Consistent Inclusion of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Data 33

3 Models to Explain Cosmic Acceleration 35

3.1 Dark Energy Models 35

3.1.1 Quintessence, Phantom Field, and Chaplygin Gas 36

3.1.2 Worked Example: PNGB Quintessence 39

3.1.3 Worked Example: The Doomsday Model 40

3.2 Modified Gravity Models 44

3.2.1 f(R) Gravity Models 44

3.2.2 DPG Gravity Model 45

3.2.3 The Cardassian Model 46

3.3 A Cosmological Constant 47

4 Observational Method I: Type la Supernovae as Dark Energy Probe 51

4.1 Type la Supernovae as Distance Indicators 51

4.2 Possible Causes of Observational Diversity in SNe la 56

4.3 Supernova Rate 57

4.4 Systematic Effects 61

4.4.1 Extinction 62

4.4.2 K-Correction 64

4.4.3 Weak Lensing 66

4.4.4 Other Systematic Uncertainties of SNe la 71

4.5 Data Analysis Techniques 73

4.5.1 Light Curve Fitting 73

4.5.2 Flux-Averaging Analysis of SNe la 76

4.5.3 Uncorrelated Estimate of H(z) 79

4.6 Forecast for Future SN la Surveys 83

4.7 Optimized Observations of SNe la 86

5 Observational Method 11: Galaxy Redshift Surveys as Dark Energy Probe 91

5.1 Baryon Acoustic Oscillations as Standard Ruler 91

5.2 BAO Observational Results 93

5.3 BAO Systematic Effects 97

5.3.1 Nonlinear Effects 98

5.3.2 Redshift-Space Distortions 99

5.3.3 Scale-Dependent Bias 101

5.4 BAO Data Analysis Techniques 103

5.4.1 Using the Galaxy Power Spectrum to Probe BAO 104

5.4.2 Using Two-Point Correlation Functions to Probe BAO 114

5.5 Future Prospects for BAO Measurements 119

5.6 Probing the Cosmic Growth Rate Using Redshift-Space Distortions 124

5.6.1 Measuring Redshift-Space Distortion Parameter β 124

5.6.2 Measuring the Bias Factor 128

5.6.3 Using fg(z) and H(z) to Test Gravity 132

5.7 The Alcock-Paczynski Test 134

6 Observational Method III: Weak Lensing as Dark Energy Probe 135

6.1 Weak Gravitational Lensing 135

6.2 Weak Lensing Observational Results 142

6.3 Systematics of Weak Lensing 147

6.3.1 Point Spread Function Correction 148

6.3.2 Other Systematic Uncertainties 154

6.4 Future Prospects for the Weak Lensing Method 157

6.5 The Geometric Weak Lensing Method 159

6.5.1 Linear Scaling and Off-Linear Scaling 160

6.5.2 Implementation of the Linear Scaling Geometric Method 161

7 Observational Method IV: Clusters as Dark Energy Probe 163

7.1 Clusters and Cosmology 163

7.2 Cluster Abundance as a Dark Energy Probe 164

7.2.1 Theoretical Cluster Mass Function 164

7.2.2 Cluster Mass Estimates 166

7.2.3 Cluster Abundance Estimation 172

7.2.4 Cosmological Parameters Constraints 175

7.3 X-Ray Gas Mass Fraction as a Dark Energy Probe 179

7.4 Systematic Uncertainties and Their Mitigation 182

8 Other Observational Methods for Probing Dark Energy 185

8.1 Gamma Ray Bursts as Cosmological Probe 185

8.1.1 Calibration of G RB s 185

8.1.2 Model-Independent Distance Measurements from GRBs 190

8.1.3 Impact of GRBs on Dark Energy Constraints 193

8.1.4 Systematic Uncertainties 195

8.2 Cosmic Expansion History Derived from Old Passive Galaxies 196

8.3 Radio Galaxies as Cosmological Probe 198

8.4 Solar System Tests of Genera! Relativity 202

9 Basic Instrumentation for Dark Energy Experiments 205

9.1 Telescope 205

9.2 NIR Detectors 210

9.3 Multiple-Object Spectroscopic Masks 213

10 Future Prospects for Probing Dark Energy 219

10.1 Designing the Optimal Dark Energy Experiment 219

10.2 Evaluating Dark Energy Experiments 222

10.3 Current Status and Future Prospects 225

References 229

Index 239

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