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This book brings all of the elements of data mining together in a single volume, saving the reader the time and expense of making multiple purchases. It consolidates both introductory and advanced topics, thereby covering the gamut of data mining and machine learning tactics ? from data integration and pre-processing, to fundamental algorithms, to optimization techniques and web mining methodology.
The proposed book expertly combines the finest data mining material from the Morgan Kaufmann portfolio. Individual chapters are derived from a select group of MK books authored by the best and brightest in the field. These chapters are combined into one comprehensive volume in a way that allows it to be used as a reference work for those interested in new and developing aspects of data mining.
This book represents a quick and efficient way to unite valuable content from leading data mining experts, thereby creating a definitive, one-stop-shopping opportunity for customers to receive the information they would otherwise need to round up from separate sources.
- Chapters contributed by various recognized experts in the field let the reader remain up to date and fully informed from multiple viewpoints.
- Presents multiple methods of analysis and algorithmic problem-solving techniques, enhancing the reader’s technical expertise and ability to implement practical solutions.
- Coverage of both theory and practice brings all of the elements of data mining together in a single volume, saving the reader the time and expense of making multiple purchases.
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About the Author
Soumen Chakrabarti is assistant Professor in Computer Science and Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Prior to joining IIT, he worked on hypertext databases and data mining at IBM Almaden Research Center. He has developed three systems and holds five patents in this area. Chakrabarti has served as a vice-chair and program committee member for many conferences, including WWW, SIGIR, ICDE, and KDD, and as a guest editor of the IEEE TKDE special issue on mining and searching the Web. His work on focused crawling received the Best Paper award at the 8th International World Wide Web Conference (1999). He holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.Earl founded and serves as President of, Scianta Intelligence, a next generation machine intelligence and knowledge exploration company. He is a futurist, author, management consultant, and educator involved in discovering the epistemology of advanced intelligent systems, the redefinition of the machine mind, and, as a pioneer of Internet-based technologies, the way in which evolving inter-connected virtual worlds will affect the sociology of business and culture in the near and far future.Earl has over thirty years experience in managing and participating in the software development process at the system as well as tightly integrated application level. In the area of advanced machine intelligence technologies, Earl is a recognized expert in fuzzy logic, and adaptive fuzzy systems as they are applied to information and decision theory. He has pioneered the integration of fuzzy neural systems with genetic algorithms and case-based reasoning. As an industry observer and futurist, Earl has written and talked extensively on the philosophy of the Response to Change, the nature of Emergent Intelligence, and the Meaning of Information Entropy in Mind and Machine.Eibe Frank lives in New Zealand with his Samoan spouse and two lovely boys, but originally hails from Germany, where he received his first degree in computer science from the University of Karlsruhe. He moved to New Zealand to pursue his Ph.D. in machine learning under the supervision of Ian H. Witten, and joined the Department of Computer Science at the University of Waikato as a lecturer on completion of his studies. He is now an associate professor at the same institution. As an early adopter of the Java programming language, he laid the groundwork for the Weka software described in this book. He has contributed a number of publications on machine learning and data mining to the literature and has refereed for many conferences and journals in these areas.
Jiawei Han is Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Well known for his research in the areas of data mining and database systems, he has received many awards for his contributions in the field, including the 2004 ACM SIGKDD Innovations Award. He has served as Editor-in-Chief of ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data, and on editorial boards of several journals, including IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering and Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.Micheline Kamber is a researcher with a passion for writing in easy-to-understand terms. She has a master's degree in computer science (specializing in artificial intelligence) from Concordia University, Canada.Sam Lightstone is a Senior Technical Staff Member and Development Manager with IBM’s DB2 product development team. His work includes numerous topics in autonomic computing and relational database management systems. He is cofounder and leader of DB2’s autonomic computing R&D effort. He is Chair of the IEEE Data Engineering Workgroup on Self Managing Database Systems and a member of the IEEE Computer Society Task Force on Autonomous and Autonomic Computing. In 2003 he was elected to the Canadian Technical Excellence Council, the Canadian affiliate of the IBM Academy of Technology. He is an IBM Master Inventor with over 25 patents and patents pending; he has published widely on autonomic computing for relational database systems. He has been with IBM since 1991.Richard E. Neapolitan is professor and Chair of Computer Science at Northeastern Illinois University. He has previously written four books including the seminal 1990 Bayesian network text Probabilistic Reasoning in Expert Systems. More recently, he wrote the 2004 text Learning Bayesian Networks, the textbook Foundations of Algorithms, which has been translated to three languages and is one of the most widely-used algorithms texts world-wide, and the 2007 text Probabilistic Methods for Financial and Marketing Informatics (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers).
Dorian Pyle is Chief Scientist and Founder of PTI (www.pti.com), which develops and markets Powerhouse™ predictive and explanatory analytics software. Dorian has over 20 years experience in artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques which are used in what is known today as “data mining or “predictive analytics. He has applied this knowledge as a consultant with Knowledge Stream Partners, Xchange, Naviant, Thinking Machines, and Data Miners and with various companies directly involved in credit card marketing for banks and with manufacturing companies using industrial automation. In 1976 he was involved in building artificially intelligent machine learning systems utilizing the pioneering technologies that are currently known as neural computing and associative memories. He is current in and familiar with using the most advanced technologies in data mining including: entropic analysis (information theory), chaotic and fractal decomposition, neural technologies, evolution and genetic optimization, algebra evolvers, case-based reasoning, concept induction and other advanced statistical techniques.Mamdouh Refaat is a data mining and business analytics consultant advising major organizations in North America and Europe. He has held several positions in consulting organizations and software vendors, including the director of consulting services at ANGOSS Software Corporation, a global data mining software and service provider. During his career, Mamdouh has managed numerous data mining consulting projects in marketing, CRM, and credit risk for Fortune 500 organizations in North America and Europe. In addition, he has delivered over 50 professional training courses in data mining and business analytics. Mamdouh holds a Ph.D. in Engineering from the University of Toronto, and an MBA from the University of Leeds.During his career, Mamdouh has managed numerous data mining consulting projects in marketing, CRM, and credit risk for Fortune 500 organizations in North America and Europe. In addition, he has delivered over 50 professional training courses in data mining and business analytics.Mamdouh holds a PhD in Engineering from the University of Toronto, and an MBA from the University of Leeds.Markus Schneider is an Assistant Professor in the Computer Science Department of the University of Florida and holds a doctoral degree in Computer Science from the University of Hagen, Germany. He is author of a monograph in the area of spatial databases and of a German textbook on implementation concepts for database systems, and has published about 40 articles on database systems. He is on the editorial board of GeoInformatica.
Toby J. Teorey is a professor in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Arizona, Tucson, and a Ph.D. in computer sciences from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He was general chair of the 1981 ACM SIGMOD Conference and program chair for the 1991 Entity-Relationship Conference. Professor Teorey’s current research focuses on database design and data warehousing, OLAP, advanced database systems, and performance of computer networks. He is a member of the ACM and the IEEE Computer Society.
Ian H. Witten is a professor of computer science at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. He directs the New Zealand Digital Library research project. His research interests include information retrieval, machine learning, text compression, and programming by demonstration. He received an MA in Mathematics from Cambridge University, England; an MSc in Computer Science from the University of Calgary, Canada; and a PhD in Electrical Engineering from Essex University, England. He is a fellow of the ACM and of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He has published widely on digital libraries, machine learning, text compression, hypertext, speech synthesis and signal processing, and computer typography. He has written several books, the latest being Managing Gigabytes (1999) and Data Mining (2000), both from Morgan Kaufmann.
Read an Excerpt
Data MiningKnow It All
By Soumen Chakrabarti Earl Cox Eibe Frank Ralf Hartmut Güting Jaiwei Han Xia Jiang Micheline Kamber Sam S. Lightstone Thomas P. Nadeau Richard E. Neapolitan Dorian Pyle Mamdouh Refaat Markus Schneider Toby J. Teorey Ian H. Witten
MORGAN KAUFMANNCopyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc.
All right reserved.
Chapter OneWhat's It All About?
Human in vitro fertilization involves collecting several eggs from a woman's ovaries, which, after fertilization with partner or donor sperm, produce several embryos. Some of these are selected and transferred to the woman's uterus. The problem is to select the "best" embryos to use—the ones that are most likely to survive. Selection is based on around 60 recorded features of the embryos—characterizing their morphology, oocyte, follicle, and the sperm sample. The number of features is sufficiently large that it is difficult for an embryologist to assess them all simultaneously and correlate historical data with the crucial outcome of whether that embryo did or did not result in a live child. In a research project in England, machine learning is being investigated as a technique for making the selection, using as training data historical records of embryos and their outcome.
Every year, dairy farmers in New Zealand have to make a tough business decision: which cows to retain in their herd and which to sell off to an abattoir. Typically, one-fifth of the cows in a dairy herd are culled each year near the end of the milking season as feed reserves dwindle. Each cow's breeding and milk production history influences this decision. Other factors include age (a cow is nearing the end of its productive life at 8 years), health problems, history of difficult calving, undesirable temperament traits (kicking or jumping fences), and not being in calf for the following season. About 700 attributes for each of several million cows have been recorded over the years. Machine learning is being investigated as a way of ascertaining which factors are taken into account by successful farmers—not to automate the decision but to propagate their skills and experience to others.
Life and death. From Europe to the antipodes. Family and business. Machine learning is a burgeoning new technology for mining knowledge from data, a technology that a lot of people are starting to take seriously.
1.1 DATA MINING AND MACHINE LEARNING
We are overwhelmed with data. The amount of data in the world, in our lives, continues to increase—and there's no end in sight. Omnipresent personal computers make it too easy to save things that previously we would have trashed. Inexpensive multigigabyte disks make it too easy to postpone decisions about what to do with all this stuff—we simply buy another disk and keep it all. Ubiquitous electronics record our decisions, our choices in the supermarket, our financial habits, our comings and goings. We swipe our way through the world, every swipe a record in a database. The World Wide Web overwhelms us with information; meanwhile, every choice we make is recorded. And all these are just personal choices: they have countless counterparts in the world of commerce and industry. We would all testify to the growing gap between the generation of data and our understanding of it. As the volume of data increases, inexorably, the proportion of it that people understand decreases, alarmingly. Lying hidden in all this data is information, potentially useful information, that is rarely made explicit or taken advantage of.
This book is about looking for patterns in data. There is nothing new about this. People have been seeking patterns in data since human life began. Hunters seek patterns in animal migration behavior, farmers seek patterns in crop growth, politicians seek patterns in voter opinion, and lovers seek patterns in their partners' responses. A scientist's job (like a baby's) is to make sense of data, to discover the patterns that govern how the physical world works and encapsulate them in theories that can be used for predicting what will happen in new situations. The entrepreneur's job is to identify opportunities, that is, patterns in behavior that can be turned into a profitable business, and exploit them.
In data mining, the data is stored electronically and the search is automated—or at least augmented—by computer. Even this is not particularly new. Economists, statisticians, forecasters, and communication engineers have long worked with the idea that patterns in data can be sought automatically, identified, validated, and used for prediction. What is new is the staggering increase in opportunities for finding patterns in data. The unbridled growth of databases in recent years, databases on such everyday activities as customer choices, brings data mining to the forefront of new business technologies. It has been estimated that the amount of data stored in the world's databases doubles every 20 months, and although it would surely be difficult to justify this figure in any quantitative sense, we can all relate to the pace of growth qualitatively. As the flood of data swells and machines that can undertake the searching become commonplace, the opportunities for data mining increase. As the world grows in complexity, overwhelming us with the data it generates, data mining becomes our only hope for elucidating the patterns that underlie it. Intelligently analyzed data is a valuable resource. It can lead to new insights and, in commercial settings, to competitive advantages.
Data mining is about solving problems by analyzing data already present in databases. Suppose, to take a well-worn example, the problem is fickle customer loyalty in a highly competitive marketplace. A database of customer choices, along with customer profiles, holds the key to this problem. Patterns of behavior of former customers can be analyzed to identify distinguishing characteristics of those likely to switch products and those likely to remain loyal. Once such characteristics are found, they can be put to work to identify present customers who are likely to jump ship. This group can be targeted for special treatment, treatment too costly to apply to the customer base as a whole. More positively, the same techniques can be used to identify customers who might be attracted to another service the enterprise provides, one they are not presently enjoying, to target them for special offers that promote this service. In today's highly competitive, customer-centered, service-oriented economy, data is the raw material that fuels business growth—if only it can be mined.
Data mining is defined as the process of discovering patterns in data. The process must be automatic or (more usually) semiautomatic. The patterns discovered must be meaningful in that they lead to some advantage, usually an economic advantage. The data is invariably present in substantial quantities.
How are the patterns expressed? Useful patterns allow us to make nontrivial predictions on new data. There are two extremes for the expression of a pattern: as a black box whose innards are effectively incomprehensible and as a transparent box whose construction reveals the structure of the pattern. Both, we are assuming, make good predictions. The difference is whether or not the patterns that are mined are represented in terms of a structure that can be examined, reasoned about, and used to inform future decisions. Such patterns we call structural because they capture the decision structure in an explicit way. In other words, they help to explain something about the data.
Now, finally, we can say what this book is about. It is about techniques for finding and describing structural patterns in data. Most of the techniques that we cover have developed within a field known as machine learning. But first let us look at what structural patterns are.
1.1.1 Describing Structural Patterns
What is meant by structural patterns? How do you describe them? And what form does the input take? We will answer these questions by way of illustration rather than by attempting formal, and ultimately sterile, definitions. We will present plenty of examples later in this chapter, but let's examine one right now to get a feeling for what we're talking about.
Look at the contact lens data in Table 1.1. This gives the conditions under which an optician might want to prescribe soft contact lenses, hard contact lenses, or no contact lenses at all; we will say more about what the individual features mean later. Each line of the table is one of the examples. Part of a structural description of this information might be as follows:
If tear production rate = reduced then recommendation = none Otherwise, if age = young and astigmatic = no then recommendation = soft
Structural descriptions need not necessarily be couched as rules such as these. Decision trees, which specify the sequences of decisions that need to be made and the resulting recommendation, are another popular means of expression.
This example is a simplistic one. First, all combinations of possible values are represented in the table. There are 24 rows, representing three possible values of age and two values each for spectacle prescription, astigmatism, and tear production rate (3 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 24). The rules do not really generalize from the data; they merely summarize it. In most learning situations, the set of examples given as input is far from complete, and part of the job is to generalize to other, new examples. You can imagine omitting some of the rows in the table for which tear production rate is reduced and still coming up with the rule
If tear production rate = reduced then recommendation = none
which would generalize to the missing rows and fill them in correctly. Second, values are specified for all the features in all the examples. Real-life datasets invariably contain examples in which the values of some features, for some reason or other, are unknown—for example, measurements were not taken or were lost. Third, the preceding rules classify the examples correctly, whereas often, because of errors or noise in the data, misclassifications occur even on the data that is used to train the classifier.
1.1.2 Machine Learning
Now that we have some idea about the inputs and outputs, let's turn to machine learning. What is learning, anyway? What is machine learning? These are philosophic questions, and we will not be much concerned with philosophy in this book; our emphasis is firmly on the practical. However, it is worth spending a few moments at the outset on fundamental issues, just to see how tricky they are, before rolling up our sleeves and looking at machine learning in practice. Our dictionary defines "to learn" as follows:
* To get knowledge of by study, experience, or being taught.
* To become aware by information or from observation.
* To commit to memory.
* To be informed of, ascertain.
* To receive instruction.
These meanings have some shortcomings when it comes to talking about computers. For the first two, it is virtually impossible to test whether learning has been achieved or not. How do you know whether a machine has got knowledge of something? You probably can't just ask it questions; even if you could, you wouldn't be testing its ability to learn but would be testing its ability to answer questions. How do you know whether it has become aware of something? The whole question of whether computers can be aware, or conscious, is a burning philosophic issue. As for the last three meanings, although we can see what they denote in human terms, merely "committing to memory" and "receiving instruction" seem to fall far short of what we might mean by machine learning. They are too passive, and we know that computers find these tasks trivial. Instead, we are interested in improvements in performance, or at least in the potential for performance, in new situations. You can "commit something to memory" or "be informed of something" by rote learning without being able to apply the new knowledge to new situations. You can receive instruction without benefiting from it at all.
Earlier we defined data mining operationally as the process of discovering patterns, automatically or semiautomatically, in large quantities of data—and the patterns must be useful. An operational definition can be formulated in the same way for learning:
Things learn when they change their behavior in a way that makes them perform better in the future.
This ties learning to performance rather than knowledge. You can test learning by observing the behavior and comparing it with past behavior. This is a much more objective kind of definition and appears to be far more satisfactory.
Excerpted from Data Mining by Soumen Chakrabarti Earl Cox Eibe Frank Ralf Hartmut Güting Jaiwei Han Xia Jiang Micheline Kamber Sam S. Lightstone Thomas P. Nadeau Richard E. Neapolitan Dorian Pyle Mamdouh Refaat Markus Schneider Toby J. Teorey Ian H. Witten Copyright © 2009 by Elsevier Inc. . Excerpted by permission of MORGAN KAUFMANN. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of ContentsChapter 1: Data Mining Overview
Chapter 2: Data Acquisition and Integration
Chapter 3: Data Pre-processing
Chapter 4: Physical Design for Decision Support, Warehousing, and OLAP
Chapter 5: Algorithms - The Basic Methods
Chapter 6: Further Techniques in Decision Analysis
Chapter 7: Fundamental Concepts of Genetic Algorithms
Chapter 8: Spatio-Temporal Data Structures and Algorithms for Moving Objects Types
Chapter 9: Improving the Mined Model
Chapter 10: Web Mining - Social Network Analysis