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SAGE Publications
Data Strategies to Uncover and Eliminate Hidden Inequities: The Wallpaper Effect / Edition 1

Data Strategies to Uncover and Eliminate Hidden Inequities: The Wallpaper Effect / Edition 1


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Data Strategies to Uncover and Eliminate Hidden Inequities: The Wallpaper Effect / Edition 1

Standardized test scores and other outcome-based data are useful tools, but they also paint an incomplete picture that papers over the cracks in our education system. Peel away the layers, however, and you discover hidden factors that contribute to the achievement gap and chronic low school performance.

Ruth S. Johnson and Robin Avelar La Salle dramatically illustrate how data from nontraditional sources-disciplinary policies, teacher attendance, special education referrals, and more-can be used to uncover and eliminate systemic inequities. This solution-focused guide

Helps you identify sources of data and questions to ask

Examines disparities in graduation rates, special education placement, and the achievement of English learners

Includes data exercises to help you analyze your school or district as you read

Data Strategies to Uncover and Eliminate Hidden Inequities arms you with the tactics you need to challenge the status quo and take decisive action.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781412914932
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 08/03/2010
Pages: 312
Sales rank: 707,033
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Ruth S. Johnson is a professor emeritus at California State University, Los Angeles. She has served in a variety of educational settings in New Jersey and California. Ruth received her Ed.D. in 1985 from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Her dissertation was titled An Exploratory Study of Academic Labeling, Student Achievement and Student Ethnographic Characteristics. At the K–12 level, she served as a classroom teacher, an instructional consultant, a director of elementary education, an analyst, an assistant superintendent of schools in the areas of curriculum and business, and as a superintendent of schools. She initiated efforts that resulted in raising academic standards and student achievement in low performing school districts. She served as an education consultant for the New Jersey Department of Education and as a director for two non-profit organizations in California which focused on raising student achievement in underserved student populations. Her major scholarly interests and publications focus on processes related to changing the academic culture of urban schools, with an emphasis on access and equity. In addition to her four published books, she has written numerous book chapters, articles, editorials, research reports, and manuscript reviews. As a recognized speaker, she has presented nationally to scholarly and professional audiences and serves as a consultant to schools and districts.

Robin Avelar La Salle grew up in Echo Park, near downtown Los Angeles. Avelar La Salle holds a Ph.D. in Education from Stanford University with emphasis on Language, Literacy and Culture. She taught elementary, middle, high school and university students in Southern and Northern California. Avelar La Salle spent years as the Administrator for Curriculum, Staff Development and Assessment at a school district outside of Los Angeles. She has held numerous positions in research and consulting focused on advancing academic success for historically underperforming students. Currently, Avelar La Salle is co-founder and Chief Program Officer for PRINCIPAL’s Exchange, a California State-approved external evaluation firm dedicated to improving schools and districts serving high-poverty, high-minority communities.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments viii

About the Authors xii

Introduction 1

Part I The Need for the Other Data 5

1 The Wallpaper Effect: Uncovering Inequities using the other Data 6

Scenario: Student Court Case Testimony 6

Overview 7

Key Roles for Data: Traditional and other Data 8

The Data Context: Unfulfilled Promises 15

The Wallpaper Effect: Making the Invisible Visible 28

Conclusion 30

2 Peeling the Wallpaper: Uncovering Inequities 31

Scenario: Martin Luther King Jr. High School 31

Overview 33

Organizing for Meaningful Inquiry 34

The Achievement Gap 35

Peeling off Layers of Data 38

Application of the Levels of Analysis 41

Peeling the Data at Cortez Intermediate School 43

Data-Bite Exercises 51

Conclusion 60

Part II Peeling the Wallpaper off Everyday Inequities 61

3 The Journey Through School: Starting With the End in Mind 62

Scenario: Kyle 62

Overview 65

Graduating and Dropping out: The Status of the K-12 Pipeline 65

Calculation Confusion: What is the Real Graduation and Dropout Picture? 68

Examining the Bottleneck 74

Stemming the Leakages 77

Gathering Data 79

College Readiness 80

College Attendance and Family Income 89

Conclusion 93

4 Special Education and Gifted and Talented 94

Scenario: Precious Cantor 94

Overview 97

Students Receiving Special Education Services: The Broad Context 98

Windows Into Belief Systems: The Inevitability Assumption and the Normalization of Failure 103

Changing Expectations and Behaviors, Changing Outcomes 110

Time in General Education 112

Disproportionate Representation 114

Peeling Back to Examine Other Data 120

A Discussion About Culture 122

Service not Labels 126

Students Receiving Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) Services 127

Conclusion 139

5 English Learners 141

Overview 142

Challenging Conventional Wisdom About Programs for EL Students 143

A Case on Transforming the Status Quo 145

Profile of BAUSD EL Students 149

Peeling off the Layers 150

Data as an Instigator of Equity-Minded Action 160

Conclusion 164

6 Nonacademic Indicators Associated with Achievement Outcomes 166

Scenario: Titan Middle School 166

Overview 167

Rethinking Time 168

Discipline: Exclusion and Loss of Learning Time 174

Attendance 180

Extracurricular Participation 185

Facilities and Program Quality 188

Student Voice and Social Networks 190

Conclusion 193

7 Systemic Inequities: Structures, Policies, and Practices 194

Scenario: Award-Winning School District 194

Overview 197

Common Roots of Systemic Challenges to Equity and Achievement 198

Conclusion 219

Part III Changing our Current Normal 221

8 Increasing Equity Muscle 222

Overview 222

The Context: The Need to Increase Equity Muscle 223

Reframing and Challenging what Appears "Normal" and Natural 225

The Need for Dialogue 229

Organizing to use the other Data 232

The Need for Culturally Responsive Systems 237

The Need for Leadership 239

The Need for Student Advocacy 240

Who is Missing From the Table? 241

Conclusion 241

Appendix A Overview of Other Data 242

Appendix B Sample Data-Bite Responses (Chapter 2) 251

Appendix C Summary of Main Points Gathered Through Interviews (Chapter 7) 259

Annotated Resources 264

References 280

Index 288

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