ISBN-10:
0470924675
ISBN-13:
2900470924678
Pub. Date:
08/30/2011
Publisher:
Wiley
DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing / Edition 11

DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing / Edition 11

by J. T. Black
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  • Product Details

    ISBN-13: 2900470924678
    Publisher: Wiley
    Publication date: 08/30/2011
    Edition description: New Edition
    Pages: 1184
    Product dimensions: 8.80(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.70(d)

    About the Author

    J. T. Black received his Ph.D. from Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana in 1969, an M.S. in Industrial Engineering from West Virginia University in 1963 and his B.S. in Industrial Engineering, Lehigh University in 1960. J T. is Professor Emeritus from Industrial and Systems Engineering at Auburn University. He was the Chairman and a Professor of Industrial and Systems Engineering at The University of Alabama-Huntsville. He also taught at The Ohio State University, the University of Rhode Island, the University of Vermont, and the University of Illinois. He taught his first processes class in 1960 at West Virginia University. J T. is a Fellow in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Institute of Industrial Engineering and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

    Ron Kohser received his Ph.D. from Lehigh University Institute for Metal Forming in 1975. Ron is currently in his 37th year on the faculty of Missouri University of Science & Technology (formerly the University of Missouri-Rolla), where he is a Professor of Metallurgical Engineering and Dean's Teaching Scholar.While maintaining a full commitment to classroom instruction, he has served as department chair and Associate Dean for Undergraduate Instruction. He currently teaches courses in Metallurgy for Engineers, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, and Material Selection, Fabrication and Failure Analysis.

    Table of Contents

    Preface iv

    1 Introduction to DeGarmo’s Materials and Processes in Manufacturing 1

    1.1 Materials, Manufacturing, and the Standard of Living 1

    1.2 Manufacturing and Production Systems 3

    Review Questions 24

    Problems 25

    2 Properties of Materials 26

    2.1 Introduction 26

    2.2 Static Properties 28

    2.3 Dynamic Properties 38

    2.4 Temperature Effects (Both High and Low) 43

    2.5 Machinability, Formability, and Weldability 46

    2.6 Fracture Toughness and the Fracture Mechanics Approach 46

    2.7 Physical Properties 48

    2.8 Testing Standards and Testing Concerns 48

    Review Questions 48

    Problems 50

    3 Nature of Materials 51

    3.1 Structure—Property—Processing—Performance Relationships 51

    3.2 The Structure of Atoms 52

    3.3 Atomic Bonding 52

    3.4 Secondary Bonds 53

    3.5 Atom Arrangements in Materials 54

    3.6 Crystal Structures 54

    3.7 Development of a Grain Structure 56

    3.8 Elastic Deformation 56

    3.9 Plastic Deformation 57

    3.10 Dislocation Theory of Slippage 58

    3.11 Strain Hardening or Work Hardening 59

    3.12 Plastic Deformation in Polycrystalline Material 60

    3.13 Grain Shape and Anisotropic Properties 60

    3.14 Fracture 61

    3.15 Cold Working, Recrystallization, and Hot Working 61

    3.16 Grain Growth 62

    3.17 Alloys and Alloy Types 62

    3.18 Atomic Structure and Electrical Properties 62

    Review Questions 63

    Problems 64

    4 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams and the Iron–Carbon System 65

    4.1 Introduction 65

    4.2 Phases 65

    4.3 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams 65

    4.4 Iron–Carbon Equilibrium Diagram 71

    4.5 Steels and the Simplified Iron–Carbon Diagram 72

    4.6 Cast Irons 74

    Review Questions 75

    Problems 76

    5 Heat Treatment 77

    5.1 Introduction 77

    5.2 Processing Heat Treatments 77

    5.3 Heat Treatments Used to Increase Strength 80

    5.4 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Nonferrous Metals 80

    5.5 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Steel 83

    5.6 Surface Hardening of Steel 94

    5.7 Furnaces 96

    5.8 Heat Treatment and Energy 97

    Review Questions 98

    Problems 99

    6 Ferrous Metals and Alloys 101

    6.1 Introduction to History-Dependent Materials 101

    6.2 Ferrous Metals 101

    6.3 Iron 102

    6.4 Steel 102

    6.5 Stainless Steels 113

    6.6 Tool Steels 115

    6.7 Cast Irons 117

    6.8 Cast Steels 120

    6.9 The Role of Processing on Cast Properties 120

    Review Questions 121

    Problems 122

    7 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys 124

    7.1 Introduction 124

    7.2 Copper and Copper Alloys 124

    7.3 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 129

    7.4 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 135

    7.5 Zinc and Zinc Alloys 137

    7.6 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 138

    7.7 Nickel-Based Alloys 139

    7.8 Superalloys, Refractory Metals, and Other Materials Designed for High-Temperature Service 139

    7.9 Lead and Tin and Their Alloys 142

    7.10 Some Lesser-Known Metals and Alloys 142

    7.11 Metallic Glasses 142

    7.12 Graphite 143

    7.13 Materials for Specific Applications 143

    7.14 High Entropy Alloys 143

    Review Questions 144

    Problems 145

    8 Nonmetallic Materials: Plastics, Elastomers, Ceramics, and Composites 146

    8.1 Introduction 146

    8.2 Plastics 146

    8.3 Elastomers 157

    8.4 Ceramics 160

    8.5 Composite Materials 167

    Review Questions 175

    Problems 177

    9 Material Selection 178

    9.1 Introduction 178

    9.2 Material Selection and Manufacturing Processes 180

    9.3 The Design Process 180

    9.4 Approaches to Material Selection 181

    9.5 Additional Factors to Consider 184

    9.6 Consideration of the Manufacturing Process 184

    9.7 Ultimate Objective 185

    9.8 Materials Substitution 186

    9.9 Effect of Product Liability on Materials Selection 187

    9.10 Aids to Material Selection 187

    Review Questions 188

    Problems 189

    10 Measurement and Inspection 192

    10.1 Introduction 192

    10.2 Standards of Measurement 192

    10.3 Allowance and Tolerance 195

    10.4 Inspection Methods for Measurement 201

    10.5 Measuring Instruments 202

    10.6 Vision Systems 209

    10.7 Coordinate Measuring Machines 210

    10.8 Angle-Measuring Instruments 212

    10.9 Gages for Attributes Measuring 212

    Review Questions 215

    Problems 216

    11 Nondestructive Examination (NDE) / Nondestructive Testing (NDT) 218

    11.1 Destructive vs. Nondestructive Testing 218

    11.2 Visual Inspection 220

    11.3 Liquid Penetrant Inspection 220

    11.4 Magnetic Particle Inspection 221

    11.5 Ultrasonic Inspection 222

    11.6 Radiography 224

    11.7 Eddy-Current Testing 225

    11.8 Acoustic Emission Monitoring 227

    11.9 Other Methods of Nondestructive Testing and Inspection 228

    11.10 Dormant vs. Critical Flaws 229

    11.11 Current and Future Trends 229

    Review Questions 229

    Problems 230

    12 Process Capability and Quality Control 232

    12.1 Introduction 232

    12.2 Determining Process Capability 233

    12.3 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control 239

    12.4 Sampling Errors 243

    12.5 Gage Capability 244

    12.6 Just in Time/Total Quality Control 244

    12.7 Six Sigma 253

    12.8 Summary 256

    Review Questions 256

    Problems 257

    13 Fundamentals of Casting 259

    13.1 Introduction to Materials Processing 259

    13.2 Introduction to Casting 260

    13.3 Casting Terminology 261

    13.4 The Solidification Process 262

    13.5 Patterns 270

    13.6 Design Considerations in Castings 271

    13.7 The Casting Industry 274

    Review Questions 274

    Problems 276

    14 Expendable-Mold Casting Processes 277

    14.1 Introduction 277

    14.2 Sand Casting 277

    14.3 Cores and Core Making 290

    14.4 Other Expendable-Mold Processes with Multiple-Use Patterns 293

    14.5 Expendable-Mold Processes using Single-Use Patterns 294

    14.6 Shakeout, Cleaning, and Finishing 300

    14.7 Summary 300

    Review Questions 300

    Problems 302

    15 Multiple-Use-Mold Casting Processes 303

    15.1 Introduction 303

    15.2 Permanent-Mold Casting 303

    15.3 Die Casting 306

    15.4 Squeeze Casting and Semisolid Casting 309

    15.5 Centrifugal Casting 310

    15.6 Continuous Casting 312

    15.7 Melting 312

    15.8 Pouring Practice 315

    15.9 Cleaning, Finishing, Heat Treating, and Inspection 315

    15.10 Automation in Foundry Operations 316

    15.11 Process Selection 316

    Review Questions 318

    Problems 319

    16 Powder Metallurgy (Particulate Processing) 320

    16.1 Introduction 320

    16.2 The Basic Process 320

    16.3 Powder Manufacture 321

    16.4 Powder Testing and Evaluation 322

    16.5 Powder Mixing and Blending 323

    16.6 Compacting 323

    16.7 Sintering 326

    16.8 Advances in Sintering (Shorter Time, Higher Density, Stronger Products) 327

    16.9 Hot-Isostatic Pressing 328

    16.10 Other Techniques to Produce High-Density P/M Products 329

    16.11 Metal Injection Molding (MIM) 329

    16.12 Secondary Operations 331

    16.13 Properties of P/M Products 332

    16.14 Design of Powder Metallurgy Parts 334

    16.15 Powder Metallurgy Products 334

    16.16 Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Metallurgy 336

    16.17 Process Summary 337

    Review Questions 338

    Problems 339

    17 Fundamentals of Metal Forming 341

    17.1 Introduction 341

    17.2 Forming Processes: Independent Variables 341

    17.3 Dependent Variables 342

    17.4 Independent–Dependent Relationships 343

    17.5 Process Modeling 344

    17.6 General Parameters 344

    17.7 Friction, Lubrication, and Wear under Metalworking Conditions 345

    17.8 Temperature Concerns 346

    17.9 Formability 352

    Review Questions 352

    Problems 354

    18 Bulk Forming Processes 355

    18.1 Introduction 355

    18.2 Classification of Deformation Processes 355

    18.3 Bulk Deformation Processes 355

    18.4 Rolling 356

    18.5 Forging 360

    18.6 Extrusion 370

    18.7 Wire, Rod, and Tube Drawing 374

    18.8 Cold Forming, Cold Forging, and Impact Extrusion 376

    18.9 Piercing 379

    18.10 Other Squeezing Processes 380

    18.11 Surface Improvement by Deformation Processing 382

    Review Questions 383

    Problems 384

    19 Sheet-Forming Processes 387

    19.1 Introduction 387

    19.2 Shearing Operations 387

    19.3 Bending 393

    19.4 Drawing and Stretching Processes 400

    19.5 Alternative Methods of Producing Sheet-Type Products 411

    19.6 Seamed Pipe Manufacture 411

    19.7 Presses 412

    Review Questions 416

    Problems 418

    20 Fabrication of Plastics, Ceramics, and Composites 419

    20.1 Introduction 419

    20.2 Fabrication of Plastics 419

    20.3 Processing of Rubber and Elastomers 429

    20.4 Processing of Ceramics 430

    20.5 Fabrication of Composite Materials 434

    Review Questions 442

    Problems 444

    21 Fundamentals of Machining/ Orthogonal Machining 446

    21.1 Introduction 446

    21.2 Fundamentals 446

    21.3 Forces and Power in Machining 454

    21.4 Orthogonal Machining (Two Forces) 457

    21.5 Chip Thickness Ratio, rc 460

    21.6 Mechanics of Machining (Statics) 461

    21.7 Shear Strain, γ, and Shear Front Angle, ϕ 462

    21.8 Mechanics of Machining (Dynamics) (Section courtsey of Dr. Elliot Stern) 464

    Summary 470

    Review Questions 470

    Problems 471

    22 Cutting Tool Materials 472

    22.1 Cutting Tool Materials 475

    22.2 Tool Geometry 485

    22.3 Tool-Coating Processes 486

    22.4 Tool Failure and Tool Life 488

    22.5 Taylor Tool Life 489

    22.6 Cutting Fluids 494

    22.7 Economics of Machining 494

    Review Questions 496

    Problems 497

    23 Turning and Boring Processes 499

    23.1 Introduction 499

    23.2 Fundamentals of Turning, Boring, and Facing Turning 501

    23.3 Lathe Design and Terminology 505

    23.4 Cutting Tools for Lathes 510

    23.5 Workholding in Lathes 514

    Review Questions 518

    Problems 519

    24 Milling 520

    24.1 Introduction 520

    24.2 Fundamentals of Milling Processes 520

    24.3 Milling Tools and Cutters 527

    24.4 Machines for Milling 531

    Review Questions 535

    Problems 535

    25 Drilling and Related Hole-Making Processes 536

    25.1 Introduction 536

    25.2 Fundamentals of the Drilling Process 537

    25.3 Types of Drills 538

    25.4 Tool Holders for Drills 548

    25.5 Workholding for Drilling 549

    25.6 Machine Tools for Drilling 549

    25.7 Cutting Fluids for Drilling 552

    25.8 Counterboring, Countersinking, and Spot Facing 554

    25.9 Reaming 554

    Review Questions 556

    Problems 557

    26 CNC Processes and Adaptive Control: A(4) and A(5) Levels of Automation 558

    26.1 Introduction 558

    26.2 Basic Principles of Numerical Control 558

    26.3 CNC Part Programming 564

    26.4 Interpolation and Adaptive Control 571

    26.5 Machining Center Features and Trends 574

    26.6 Summary 578

    Review Questions 578

    Problems 579

    27 Sawing, Broaching, Shaping, and Filing Machining Processes 581

    27.1 Introduction 581

    27.2 Introduction to Sawing 581

    27.3 Introduction to Broaching 589

    27.4 Fundamentals of Broaching 591

    27.5 Broaching Machines 596

    27.6 Introduction to Shaping and Planing 596

    27.7 Introduction to Filing 600

    Review Questions 602

    Problems 603

    28 Abrasive Machining Processes 604

    28.1 Introduction 604

    28.2 Abrasives 606

    28.3 Grinding Wheel Structure and Grade 609

    28.4 Grinding Wheel Identification 613

    28.5 Grinding Machines 617

    28.6 Honing 624

    28.7 Superfinishing 625

    28.8 Free Abrasives 626

    28.9 Design Considerations in Grinding 630

    Review Questions 630

    Problems 631

    29 Nano and Micro-Manufacturing Processes 632
    (online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

    29.1 Introduction 632

    29.2 Lithography 635

    29.3 Micromachining Processes 638

    29.4 Deposition Processes 641

    29.5 How ICs Are Made 647

    29.6 Nano- and Micro-Scale Metrology 653

    Review Questions 655

    Problems 656

    30 Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes 657
    (online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

    30.1 Introduction 657

    30.2 Chemical Machining Processes 659

    30.3 Electrochemical Machining Processes 663

    30.4 Electrical Discharge Machining 668

    Review Questions 676

    31 Thread and Gear Manufacturing 678

    31.1 Introduction 678

    31.2 Thread Making 682

    31.3 Internal Thread Cutting–Tapping 685

    31.4 Thread Milling 687

    31.5 Thread Grinding 687

    31.6 Thread Rolling 689

    31.7 Gear Theory and Terminology 691

    31.8 Gear Types 693

    31.9 Gear Manufacturing 694

    31.10 Machining of Gears 695

    31.12 Gear Finishing 701

    31.13 Gear Inspection 702

    Review Questions 703

    Problems 704

    32 Surface Integrity and Finishing Processes 705

    32.1 Introduction 705

    32.2 Surface Integrity 705

    32.3 Abrasive Cleaning and Finishing 713

    32.4 Chemical Cleaning 717

    32.5 Coatings 718

    32.6 Vaporized Metal Coatings 726

    32.7 Clad Materials 726

    32.8 Textured Surfaces 726

    32.9 Coil-Coated Sheets 726

    32.10 Edge Finishing and Burr Removal 727

    Review Questions 729

    33 Additive Processes—Including 3-D Printing 730

    33.1 Introduction 730

    33.2 Layerwise Manufacturing 731

    33.3 Liquid-Based Processes 734

    33.4 Powder-Based Processes 736

    33.5 Deposition-Based Processes 740

    33.6 Uses and Applications 743

    33.7 Pros, Cons and Current and Future Trends 746

    33.8 Economic Considerations 748

    Review Questions 749

    Problems 750

    34 Manufacturing Automation and Industrial Robots 751

    34.1 Introduction 751

    34.2 The A(4) Level of Automation 756

    34.3 A(5) Level of Automation Requires Evaluation 762

    34.4 Industrial Robotics 766

    34.5 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 772

    34.6 Computer-Aided Design 774

    34.7 Computer-Aided Manufacturing 776

    34.8 Summary 776

    Review Questions 777

    Problems 778

    35 Fundamentals of Joining 779

    35.1 Introduction to Consolidation Processes 779

    35.2 Classification of Welding and Thermal Cutting Processes 780

    35.3 Some Common Concerns 780

    35.4 Types of Fusion Welds and Types of Joints 781

    35.5 Design Considerations 783

    35.6 Heat Effects 783

    35.7 Weldability or Joinability 788

    35.8 Summary 788

    Review Questions 789

    Problems 790

    36 Gas Flame and Arc Processes 792

    36.1 Oxyfuel-Gas Welding 792

    36.2 Oxygen Torch Cutting 795

    36.3 Flame Straightening 797

    36.4 Arc Welding 797

    36.5 Consumable-Electrode Arc Welding 798

    36.6 Nonconsumable Electrode Arc Welding 804

    36.7 Other Processes Involving Arcs 808

    36.8 Arc Cutting 810

    36.9 Metallurgical and Heat Effects in Thermal Cutting 812

    36.10 Welding Equipment 812

    36.11 Thermal Deburring 813

    Review Questions 814

    Problems 816

    37 Resistance and Solid-State Welding Processes 817

    37.1 Introduction 817

    37.2 Theory of Resistance Welding 817

    37.3 Resistance Welding Processes 819

    37.4 Advantages and Limitations of Resistance Welding 823

    37.5 Solid-State Welding Processes 823

    Review Questions 831

    Problems 832

    38 Other Welding Processes, Brazing, and Soldering 833

    38.1 Introduction 833

    38.2 Other Welding and Cutting Processes 833

    38.3 Surface Modification by Welding-Related Processes 840

    38.4 Brazing 843

    38.5 Soldering 850

    Review Questions 853

    Problems 854

    39 Adhesive Bonding, Mechanical Fastening, and Joining of Non-Metals 856

    39.1 Adhesive Bonding 856

    39.2 Mechanical Fastening 863

    39.3 Joining of Plastics 866

    39.4 Joining of Ceramics and Glass 868

    39.5 Joining of Composites 869

    Review Questions 869

    Problems 870

    40 JIG and Fixture Design 872
    (online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

    40.1 Introduction 872

    40.2 Conventional Fixture Design 872

    40.3 Tool Design Steps 875

    40.4 Clamping Considerations 876

    40.5 Chip Disposal 877

    40.6 Example of Jig Design 877

    40.7 Types of Jigs 879

    40.8 Conventional Fixtures 881

    40.9 Modular Fixturing 881

    40.10 Setup and Changeover 882

    40.11 Clamps 887

    40.12 Other Workholding Devices 887

    40.13 Economic Justification of Jigs and Fixtures 890

    Review Questions 891

    Problems 891

    41 The Enterprise (Production System) 893
    (online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

    41.1 Introduction 893

    41.2 Typical Functional Areas in the Production System (PS) 893

    Review Questions 908

    Problems 909

    42 Lean Engineering 910
    (online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

    42.1 Introduction 910

    42.2 The Lean Engineer 910

    42.3 The Lean Production System 910

    42.4 Linked-Cell Manufacturing System Design Rules 911

    42.5 Manufacturing System Designs 912

    42.6 Preliminary Steps to Lean Production 913

    42.7 Methodology for Implementation of Lean Production 914

    42.8 Design Rule MT < CT 926

    42.9 Decouplers 927

    42.10 Integrating Production Control 930

    42.11 Integrating Inventory Control 932

    42.12 Lean Manufacturing Cell Design 933

    42.13 Machine Tool Design for Lean Manufacturing Cells 936

    42.14 L-CMS Strategy 940

    Review Questions 941

    Problems 942

    43 Mixed-Model Final Assembly 943
    (online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

    43.1 Introduction 943

    43.2 History 943

    43.3 Mixed-Model Final Assembly 944

    43.4 An Example of MMFA 945

    43.5 Key Enabling Systems 945

    43.6 Manual Assembly Line Balancing 947

    43.7 Sequencing 949

    43.8 Quality in Mixed-Model Final Assembly 950

    43.9 Examples of Assembly Aids/Poka-Yoke (Error-Proofing) Applications 952

    Summary 953

    Review Questions 953

    Problems 954

    Index 955

    Selected References for Additional Study 967

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