The English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study constituted an invaluable "natural experiment" in which there was a rapid, easily-timed transition from a profoundly depriving environment in Romanian institutions to generally well-functioning adoptive families in England. Multimodal methods of assessment were used throughout the assessments at 4, 6, 11, and 15 years of age. Four key findings were particularly striking. First, institutional deprivation was associated with an apparently deprivation-specific pattern of combinations of quasiautism, disinhibited attachment, cognitive impairment, and inattention/overactivity. Second, longitudinal growth curves showed a relative deceleration of growth between 11 and 15 years (possibly due to early puberty). Third, institutional deprivation without subnutrition was associated with a major impairment in head growth. Fourth, the effects of institutional deprivation were as strong at 15 years as they had been earlier in childhood.
|Series:||Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Series|
|Product dimensions:||5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.60(d)|
About the Author
Professor Sir Michael Rutter (M.D. 1963, F.R.S.) has been involved with the project from the very beginning, from the pilot-study in 1992 up to the present time. With respect to the work described in this monograph, he has, with Edmund Sonuga-Barke, been jointly responsible as one of the two Principal Investigators (PIs). Both have been involved in all aspects of the planning of the study, undertaking of the analyses, and writing up of the findings. Michael Rutter has had a special interest in possible deprivationspecific psychological patterns and has personally seen about one-quarter of the sample, with a focus particularly on those for whom the possibility of such patterns had arisen. Throughout the study, he acted as the clinical consultant, available for discussion and clinical consultation by the study families whenever queries or concerns arose about difficulties that were encountered. However, the focus of the clinical role has been to facilitate families in gaining access to appropriate services rather than to provide theservices himself.
Professor Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke (Ph.D., 1988, University of Exeter) is the Professor of Developmental Psychopathology and Director of the Developmental Brain and Behavior Laboratory at the University of Southampton. He has a special interest in the causes of disruptive behavior problems, especially ADHD, but has published in areas as diverse as epidemiology, genetics, neuroimaging, electrophysiology, neuropsychology, treatment studies, and health outcomes research. He joined the ERA study in 2003, working alongside Michael Rutter as co-PI, holding a visiting chair at the Institute of Psychiatry. In this capacity, he has made special efforts to introduce both genetic and brain imaging studies to the project. He has an adjunct chair of Child Psychiatry at New York University and a visiting Chair at the University of Gent. He is editor-in-chief elect of the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
Table of Contents
1. INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF EARLY INSTITUTIONAL DEPRIVATION ON DEVELOPMENT: BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH STRATEGY OF THE ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN ADOPTEES (ERA) STUDY (Michael Rutter, Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke, and Jennifer Castle).
2. METHODS AND MEASURES USED FOR FOLLOW-UP AT 15 YEARS OF THE ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN ADOPTEE (ERA) STUDY (The English and Romanian Study Team).
3. DEPRIVATION-SPECIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS (Robert Kumsta, Jana Kreppner, Michael Rutter, Celia Beckett, Jennifer Castle, Suzanne Stevens, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).
4. DEVELOPMENTAL COURSE OF DEPRIVATION-SPECIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS: EARLY MANIFESTATIONS, PERSISTENCE TO AGE 15, AND CLINICAL FEATURES (Jana Kreppner, Robert Kumsta, Michael Rutter, Celia Beckett, Jennifer Castle, Suzanne Stevens, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).
5. DIFFERENTIATING DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES FOR CONDUCT, EMOTION, AND PEER PROBLEMS FOLLOWING EARLY DEPRIVATION (Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke, Wolff Schlotz, and Jana Kreppner).
6. INSTITUTIONAL DEPRIVATION, SPECIFIC COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS, AND SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT: ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN ADOPTEE (ERA) STUDY FINDINGS (Celia Beckett, Jennifer Castle, Michael Rutter, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).
7. PHYSICAL GROWTH AND MATURATION FOLLOWING EARLY SEVERE INSTITUTIONAL DEPRIVATION: DO THEY MEDIATE SPECIFIC PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS? (Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke, Wolff Schlotz, and Michael Rutter).
8. POSTADOPTION ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES (Jennifer Castle, Celia Beckett, Michael Rutter, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).
9. RISK, CAUSATION, MEDIATION, AND MODERATION (Robert Kumsta, Michael Rutter, Suzanne Stevens, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).
10. CONCLUSIONS: OVERVIEW OF FINDINGS FROM THE ERA STUDY, INFERENCES, AND RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS (Michael Rutter and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).