Agriculture is the mainstay of economy in most of the developed and developing nations including Ethiopia. Pastoralism, in its variious forms, has played an important and diverge social and economic role as well as supplement agricultural village-based economy for Millions of people in Ethiopia in fulfilling their own subsistence and contributing income for the country. Hence its development and sustainability is important not only for food security but also for a healthy economy. However uncertain and radical changes are affecting Pastoralist areas in terms of access to resources, options for mobility and opportunities for marketing are the challenges facing by this sector.It is imperative that such hurdles have to be identified and solved in war footing manner. This book has been developed based on a research study among the pastoralist community and pin point the opportunities and challenges in developing the sector. It is assumed that this book will have considerable value for those who aspire to have knowledge about pastoralism as well as the ways and means to manage in a successful manner.