The Fifth Edition of David Shaffer's popular text presents the facts, theories, and processes of developmental psychology in a clear, easy-to-read style that ensures student interest and understanding. Long known for the way he conveys his love of the discipline, Shaffer continues to stress the fundamental interplay among biological, cognitive, social, and cultural influences of each aspect of development so students don't lose sight of the whole person and the holistic character of human development. Students learn new topics as they are introduced, and then are shown how everything they've learned fits together into a coherent storyline of developmental psychology. Throughout the book, Shaffer clearly describes the major points of the major theories, compares them to other theories, shows their strengths and weaknesses, and admits when conflicts have not been resolved.
About the Author
David R. Shaffer is a Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator of Psychology at the University of Georgia, where he focuses on the Social and Life-Span Developmental Psychology Programs. He has been teaching courses in human development to graduate and undergraduate students for nearly 30 years. His many research articles have concerned such topics as altruism, attitudes and persuasion, moral development, sex roles and social behavior, self-disclosure, and social psychology and the law. He has also served as associate editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Journal of Personality.
Katherine Kipp, Ph.D., is Professor of Developmental Psychology at Gainesville State University. Dr. Kipp was formerly Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Georgia, where she focused on the Life-Span Developmental and Cognitive/Experimental Psychology Programs, and where she received numerous teaching and mentoring awards and fellowships. An active researcher, her interests include cognitive inhibition in children, children's memory, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and giftedness in children. She is a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, Cognitive Development Society, American Psychological Association, American Psychological Society, Society for Teaching in Psychology, and Psychonomics Society.
Table of ContentsPART I: THEORY AND RESEARCH IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCES. 1. INTRODUCTION TO DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS RESEARCH STRATEGIES. What Is Development? What Causes Us to Develop? What Goals Do Developmentalists Pursue? Some Basic Observations about the Character of Development. Human Development in Historical Perspective. Childhood in Premodern Times. Toward Modern-Day Views on Childhood. Origins of a Science of Development. Research Methods in Developmental Psychology. The Scientific Method. Gathering Data: Basic Fact-Finding Strategies. Detecting Relationships: Correlational and Experimental Designs. The Correlational Design. The Experimental Design. The Natural (or Quasi-) Experiment. Designs for Studying Development. The Cross-Sectional Design. The Longitudinal Design. The Sequential Design. Cross-Cultural Comparisons. Ethical Considerations In Developmental Research. On Becoming a Wise Consumer of Developmental Research. Summary. Key Terms. 2. THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. The Nature of Scientific Theories. Questions and Controversies About Human Development. The Nature/Nurture Issue. The Active/Passive Issue. The Continuity/Discontinuity Issue. The Psychoanalytic Viewpoint. Freud's Psychosexual Theory. Contributions and Criticisms of Freud's Theory. Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development. Contributions and Criticisms of Erikson's Theory. Psychoanalytic Theory Today. The Learning Viewpoint. Watson's Behaviorism. Skinner's Operant-Learning Theory (Radical Behaviorism). Bandura's Cognitive Social Learning Theory. Social Learning as Reciprocal Determinism. Contributions and Criticisms of Learning Theories. The Cognitive-Developmental Viewpoint. Piaget's View ofIntelligence and Intellectual Growth. Contributions and Criticisms of Piaget's Viewpoint. The Information-Processing Viewpoint. Contributions and Criticisms of the Information-Processing Viewpoint. The Ethological (or Evolutionary) Viewpoint. Assumptions of Classical Ethology. Ethology and Human Development. Contributions and Criticisms of the Ethological Viewpoint. The Ecological Systems Viewpoint. Bronfenbrenner's Contexts for Development. Contributions and Criticisms of the Ecological Systems Theory. Theories and World Views. Summary. Key Terms. PART II: FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT. 3. HEREDITARY INFLUENCES ON DEVELOPMENT. Principles of Hereditary Transmission. The Genetic Code. Growth of the Zygote and Production of Body Cells. The Germ (or Sex) Cells. Multiple Births. Male or Female? What do Genes do? How are Genes Expressed? Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities. Chromosomal Abnormalities. Genetic Abnormalities. Applications: Genetic Counseling, Prenatal Detection, and Treatment of Hereditary Disorders. Genetic Counseling. Prenatal Detection of Hereditary Abnormalities. Treating Hereditary Disorders. Hereditary Influences on Behavior. Methods of Studying Hereditary Influences. Hereditary Influences on Intellectual Performance. Hereditary Contributions to Personality. Hereditary Contributions to Behavior Disorders and Mental Illness. Heredity and Environment As Developmental Co-Conspirators. The Canalization Principle. The Range-of-Reaction Principle. Genotype/Environment Correlations. Contributions and Criticisms of the Behavioral Genetics Approach. Summary. Key Terms. 4. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT, BIRTH, AND NEWBORNS' READINESS FOR LIFE. From Conception to Birth. The Germinal Period. The Period of the Embryo. The Period of the Fetus. Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development. Teratogens. Maternal Characteristics. Prevention of Birth Defects. Childbirth and the Perinatal Environment. The Birth Process. The Baby's Experience. Labor and Delivery Medication. Alternative Approaches to Childbirth. The Social Environment Surrounding Birth. Birth Complications. Anoxia. Complications of Low Birth Weight. Reproductive Risk and Capacity for Recovery. The Newborn's Readiness for Life. Newborn Reflexes. Infant States. Developmental Changes In Infant States. Summary. Key Terms. 5. THE PHYSICAL SELF: DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN, THE BODY, AND MOTOR SKILLS. An Overview of Maturation and Growth. Changes in Height and Weight. Changes in Body Proportions. Skeletal Development. Muscular Development. Variations in Physical Development. Development of the Brain. Neural Development and Plasticity. Brain Differentiation and Growth. Motor Development. Basic Trends in Locomotor Development. Fine Motor Development. Psychological Implications of Early Motor Development. Beyond Infancy: Motor Development in Childhood and Adolescence. Puberty: The Physical Transition from Child to Adult. The Adolescent Growth Spurt. Sexual Maturation. The Psychological Impacts of Puberty. General Reactions to Physical Changes. Social Impacts of Pubertal Changes. Does Timing of Puberty Matter? Adolescent Sexuality. Causes and Correlates of Physical Development. Biological Mechanisms. Environmental Influences. Summary. Key Terms. PART III: LANGUAGE, LEARNING, AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. 6. EARLY COGNITIVE FOUNDATIONS: SENSATION, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING. Early Controversies About Sensory and Perceptual Development. Nature vs. Nurture. Enrichment vs. Differentiation. The Preference Method. The Habituation Method. Evoked Potentials. High-Amplitude Sucking. Infant Sensory Capabilities. Vision. Hearing. Taste and Smell. Touch, Temperature, and Pain. Visual Perception in Infancy. Perception of Patterns and Forms. Perception of Three-Dimensional Space. Intermodal Perception. Theories of Intermodal Perception. Are the Senses Integrated at Birth? Development of Intermodal Perception. Another Look at the Enrichment/Differentiation Controversy. Infant Perception Perspective-And a Look Ahead. Perceptual Learning In Childhood: Gibson's Differentiation Theory. Cultural Influences on Perception. Basic Learning Processes. Habituation: Early Evidence of Information-Processing and Memory. Classical Conditioning. Operant (or Instrumental) Conditioning. Observational Learning. Reflections on Perception and Learning. Summary. Key Terms. 7. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET'S THEORY AND VYGOTSKY'S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. What is Intelligence? Cognitive Schemes: The Structure of Intelligence. How We Gain Knowledge: Piaget's Cognitive Processes. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development. The Sensorimototr Stage (Birth to 2 Years). The Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years). The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years). The Formal-Operational Stage (11-12 Years and Beyond). An Evaluation of Piaget's Theory. Piaget's Contributions. Challenges to Piaget. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective. The Role of Culture in Intellectual Development. The Social Origins of Early Cognitive Competencies. The Role of Language in Cognitive Development. Vygotsky in Perspective: Summary and Evaluation. Summary. Key Terms. 8. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: INFORMATION-PROCESSING PERSPECTIVES. Basic Assumptions of Information-Processing Theories. The Limited-Capacity Assumption. Information Flow and Store Model. Metacognition: How Humans Control Cognitive Processes. Comparisons with Piaget's Theory. Fuzzy-Trace Theory: An Alternative Viewpoint. How Does Information-Processing Capacity Change with Age? Development of the Short-Term Store. Changes in Processing Speed. Age Difference in Processing Efficiency. Software: Development of Processing Strategies. Production and Utilization Deficiencies. Multiple- and Variable-Strategy Use. The Development of Attention. Changes in Attention Span. Development of Planful Attention Strategies. Selective Attention: Ignoring Information That Is Clearly Irrelevant. What Do Children Know about Attention? Memory: Retaining and Retrieving Information. The Development of Memory Strategies. Metamemory and Memory Performance. Knowledge Base and Memory Development. Summing Up. The Development of Event and Autobiographical Memory. Origins of Event Memory. Development of Scripted Memory. The Social Construction of Autobiographical Memories. Children as Eyewitnesses. Applications: Information Processing and Academic Skills. Development of Numerical Reasoning and Arithmetic Skills. Cultural Influences on Mathematics Performance. Evaluating the Information-Processing Perspective. Summary. Key Terms. 9. INTELLIGENCE: MEASURING MENTAL PERFORMANCE. What Is Intelligence? Psychometric Views of Intelligence. A Modern Information-Processing Viewpoint. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. How Is Intelligence Measured? The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. The Wechsler Scales. Distribution of IQ Scores. Group Test of Mental Performance. Newer Approaches to Intelligence Testing. Assessing Infant Intelligence. Stability of IQ in Childhood and Adolescence. What Do Intelligence Tests Predict? IQ as a Predictor of Scholastic Achievement. IQ as a Predictor of Vocational Outcomes. IQ as a Predictor of Health, Adjustment, and Life Satisfaction. Factors That Influence IQ Scores. The Evidence for Heredity. The Evidence for Environment. Social and Cultural Correlates of Intellectual Performance. Home Environment and IQ. Birth Order, Family Size, and IQ. Social Class, Racial and Ethnic Differences in IQ. Why Do Groups Differ in Intellectual Performance? Improving Cognitive Performance through Compensatory Education. Long-Term Follow-ups. The Importance of Parental Involvement. The Importance of Intervening Early. Creativity and Special Talents. What Is Creativity? The Psychometric Perspective. The Multicomponent (or Confluence) Perspective. Summary. 10. DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS. Four Components of Language. Phonology. Semantics. Syntax. Pragmatics. Theories of Language Development. The Learning (or Empiricist) Perspective. The Nativist Perspective. The Interactionist Perspective. Before Language: The Prelinguistic Period. Early Reactions to Language. Producing Sounds: The Infant's Prelinguistic Vocalizations. What Do Prelinguistic Infants Know About Language and Communication? One Word at a Time: The Holophrastic Period. Early Semantics: Building a Vocabulary. Attaching Meanings to Words. When a Word is More than a Word. From Holophrases to Simple Sentences: The Telegraphic Period. Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic Speech. The Pragmatics of Early Speech. Language Learning During The Preschool Period. Grammatical Development. Semantic Development. Development of Pragmatics and Communication Skills. Language Learning During Middle Childhood and Adolescence. Later Syntactic Development. Semantics and Metalinguistic Awareness. Further Development of Communication Skills. Bilingualism: Challenges and Consequences of Learning Two Languages. Summary. Key Terms. PART IV: SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT. 11. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS. An Overview of Emotional Development. Displaying Emotions: The Development (and Control) of Emotional Expressions. Recognizing and Interpreting Emotions. Emotions and Early Social Development. Temperament and Development. Hereditary and Environmental Influences on Temperament. Stability of Temperament. Early Temperamental Profiles and Later Development. What Are Emotional Attachments? Reciprocal Relationships. How Do Infants Become Attached? The Growth of Primary Attachments. Theories of Attachment. Two Attachment-Related Fears of Infancy. Individual Differences in Attachment Quality. Assessing Attachment Security. Cultural Variations in Attachment Classifications. Factors That Influence Attachment Security. Quality of Caregiving. Infant Characteristics. Attachment and Later Development. Long-term Correlates of Secure and Insecure Attachments. Why Might Attachment Quality Forecast Later Outcomes? The Unattached Infant. Effects of Social Deprivation in Infancy and Childhood. Why Is Early Deprivation Harmful? Can Children Recover from Early Deprivation Effects? Maternal Employment, Day Care, and Early Emotional Development. Quality of Alternative Care. Parenting and Parents' Attitudes about Work. Summary. Key Terms. 12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF AND SOCIAL COGNITION. Development of the Self-concept. The Emerging Self: Differentiation and Self-Recognition. Who Am I? Responses of Preschool Children. Children's Theory of Mind and Emergence of the Private Self. Conceptions of Self in Middle Childhood and Adolescence. Self Esteem: The Evaluative Component of Self. Origins and Development of Self-esteem. Social Contributions to Self-esteem. The Development of Self-control. Emergence of Self-control in Early Childhood. Delay of Gratification in Childhood and Adolescence. Development of Achievement Motivation and Academic Self-concepts. Early Origins of Achievement Motivation. Achievement Motivation during Middle Childhood and Adolescence. Beyond Achievement Motivation: Development of Achievement Attributions. Who Am I to Be? Forging an Identity. Developmental Trends in Identity Formation. How Painful Is Identity Formation? Influences on Identity Formation. The Other Side of Social Cognition: Knowing About Others. Age Trends in Person Perception. Theories of Social-Cognitive Development. Summary. Key Terms. 13. SEX DIFFERENCES AND GENDER-ROLE DEVELOPMENT. Categorizing Males and Females: Gender-Role Standards. Some Facts and Fictions about Gender Differences. Actual Psychological Differences between the Sexes. Cultural Myths. Do Cultural Myths Contribute to Sex Differences in Ability (and Vocational Opportunity)? Developmental Trends In Gender Typing. Development of the Gender Concept. Development of Gender-Role Stereotypes. Development of Gender-Typed Behavior. Theories of Gender-Typing and Gender-Role Development. Money and Ehrhardt's Biosocial Theory. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory. Social Learning Theory. Kohlberg's Cognitive-Developmental Theory. Gender Schema Theory. An Integrative Theory. Psychological Androgyny: A Prescription for the Future? Do Androgynous People Really Exist? Are There Advantages to Being Androgynous? Applications: On Changing Gender-Role Attitudes and Behavior. Summary. Key Terms. 14. AGGRESSION, ALTRUISM, AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. The Development of Aggression. Origins of Aggression in Infancy. Developmental Trends in Aggression. Individual Differences in Aggressive Behavior. Cultural and Subcultural Influences on Aggression. Coercive Home Environments: Breeding Grounds for Aggression and Delinquency. Methods of Controlling Aggression and Antisocial Conduct. Altruism: Development of the Prosocial Self. Origins of Altruism. Developmental Trends in Altruism. Social-Cognitive and Affective Contributors to Altruism. Cultural and Social Influences on Altruism. What Is Morality? Psychoanalytic Explanations of Moral Development. Freud's Theory of Oedipal Morality. Evaluating Freud's Theory and Newer Psychoanalytic Ideas about Morality. Cognitive Developmental Theory: The Child as a Moral Philosopher. Piaget's Theory of Moral Development. An Evaluation of Piaget's Theory. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development. Support for Kohlberg's Theory. Criticisms of Kohlberg's Approach. Morality as a Product of Social Learning (and Social Information Processing). How Consistent Are Moral Conduct and Moral Character? Learning to Resist Temptation. Who Raises Children Who Are Morally Mature? Summary. Key Terms. PART V: THE ECOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT. 15. THE FAMILY. Functions of the Family. The Family as a Social System. Direct and Indirect Influences. Families Are Developing Systems. Families Are Embedded Systems. A Changing Family System in a Changing World. Parental Socialization during Childhood and Adolescence. Two Major Dimensions of Parenting. Four Patterns of Parenting. Social Class and Ethnic Variations in Child-rearing. The Quest for Autonomy: Renegotiating the Parent-Child Relationship during Adolescence. The Influence of Siblings and Sibling Relationships. Changes In the Family System When a New Baby Arrives. Sibling Relationships over the Course of Childhood. Contributions of Siblings to Development. Characteristics of Only Children. Diversity In Family Life. Adoptive Families. Gay and Lesbian Families. The Impacts of Family Conflict and Divorce. Remarriage and Blended Families. Maternal Employment. When Parenting Breaks Down: The Problem of Child Abuse. Who Are the Abusers? Who is Abused? Social-Contextual Triggers: The Ecology of Child Abuse. Consequences of Abuse and Neglect. How Might We Solve The Problem? Reflections on the Family. Summary. Key Terms. 16. EXTRAFAMILIAL INFLUENCES: TELEVISION, COMPUTERS, SCHOOLS, AND PEERS. Early Windows: Impacts of Television and Computer Technologies on Children and Adolescents. Development of Television Literacy. Some Potentially Undesirable Effects of Television. Television as an Education Tool. Child Development in the Computer Age. The School as a Socialization Agent. Determinants of Effective (and Ineffective) Schooling. Do Our Schools Meet the Needs of All of Our Children. How Well-Educated Are Our Children? A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Peers as Agents of Socialization. Who or What Is a Peer and What Functions Do Peers Serve? The Development of Peer Sociability. Peer Acceptance and Popularity. Children and Their Friends. How Do Peers Exert Their Influences? Peer versus Adult Influence: The Question of Cross-Pressures. Summary. Key Terms. APPENDIX: ANSWERS TO CONCEPT CHECKS A-1. GLOSSARY. REFERENCES. NAME INDEX. SUBJECT INDEX. CREDITS.