ISBN-10:
0205512585
ISBN-13:
9780205512584
Pub. Date:
01/10/2007
Publisher:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Deviant Behavior / Edition 9

Deviant Behavior / Edition 9

by Alex Thio, Pearson

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205512584
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date: 01/10/2007
Series: MySearchLab Series for Sociology Series
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 480
Product dimensions: 7.66(w) x 9.22(h) x 0.94(d)

About the Author

Alex Thio is Professor of Sociology at Ohio University. Born of Chinese parentage in Penang, Malaysia, he grew up in a multicultural environment. He acquired fluency in Mandarin (modern standard Chinese), Malay, and Indonesian. He also picked up a smattering of English and Dutch. He took French and German in high school and college.

Professor Thio attended primary school in Malaysia and high school in Indonesia. He then came to the United States and worked his way through Central Methodist College in Missouri, where he majored in social sciences. Later, he studied sociology as a graduate student at the State University of New York at Buffalo, and he completed his doctorate while working as a research and teaching assistant.

Professor Thio regularly teaches courses in deviance, introductory sociology, social problems, and criminology. In addition to teaching, he enjoys writing. He is the author of the Sociology: A Brief Introduction , Society: Myths and Realities (Penguin Academic), and Deviant Behavior .

Table of Contents


Preface     xiii
About the Author     xvii
Perspectives and Theories     1
What Is Deviant Behavior?     3
Conflicting Definitions     4
The Positivist Perspective     5
Absolutism: Deviance as Absolutely Real     5
Objectivism: Deviance as an Observable Object     6
Determinism: Deviance as Determined Behavior     7
The Constructionist Perspective     8
Relativism: Deviance as a Label     8
Subjectivism: Deviance as a Subjective Experience     9
Voluntarism: Deviance as a Voluntary Act     10
An Integrated View     11
A Word about Deviance and Crime     13
Summary     14
Further Reading     15
Critical Thinking Questions     15
Positivist Theories     16
Anomie-Strain Theory     17
Merton: The Goal-Means Gap     17
Cohen: Status Frustration     20
Cloward and Ohlin: Differential Illegitimate Opportunity     21
Recent Developments     22
Evaluating Anomie-Strain Theory     23
Social Learning Theory     23
Sutherland: Differential Association     24
Glaser: Differential Identification     24
Burgess and Akers: Differential Reinforcement     25
Evaluating Social Learning Theory     25
Control Theory     26
Hirschi, Gottfredson, and Tittle: Social Bond, Self-Control, and Control Balance     27
Braithwaite: Reintegrative Shaming     27
The Deterrence Doctrine     28
Evaluating Control Theory     29
Summary     30
Further Reading     31
Critical Thinking Questions     32
Constructionist Theories     33
Labeling Theory     34
A Version of Symbolic Interactionism     34
Who Labels Whom?     35
Consequences of Labeling     35
Evaluating Labeling Theory     37
Phenomenological Theory     37
Critique of Positivism     38
Subjectivism as the Key to Deviant Reality     38
Ethnography: An Application of Phenomenology     39
Evaluating Phenomenological Theory     40
Conflict Theory     41
Legal Reality Theory     41
Social Reality Theory     42
Marxist Theory     44
Feminist Theory     45
Power Theory      46
Postmodernist Theory     47
Evaluating Conflict Theory     48
Summary     49
Further Reading     50
Critical Thinking Questions     51
Interpersonal Violence     53
Physical Violence     55
Assault and Aggravated Assault     57
Who Is More Likely to Kill?     57
Class and Race     58
Regions, Large Cities, and Rural Areas     58
Gender and Age     59
Patterns of Killing     60
Time of Killing     61
Place of Killing     61
Method of Killing     62
Characteristics of Homicide     63
Warm-Blooded Murder     63
Doing the Victim a Favor     64
Winning a Trivial Argument     64
An Adjunct to Suicide     66
Mass and Serial Murder     67
A Social Profile of Serial Killers     68
A Global Perspective on Homicide     69
School Violence     69
Stalking     70
Hate Killing     71
Genocide     72
Terrorism     73
The September 11 Attacks     73
The War on Terrorism     74
Why Do People Kill?     75
External Restraint Theory     76
Subculture of Violence Theory     77
Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder?     77
Summary     81
Further Reading     82
Critical Thinking Questions     83
Rape and Child Molestation     84
Patterns of Rape     86
Racial, Age, and Situational Factors     86
Planning and Execution     87
Gang Rape     88
Acquaintance Rape     89
Campus Rape     90
The Myth of Victim Precipitation     91
Consequences of Rape     92
The Rape Survivor's Response     93
The Feeling of Being Raped Again     94
The Culture of Rape     95
Treating Women Like Men's Property     95
Using Women in Men's Masculinity Contests     97
The Myth That Women Ask for It     98
Socializing Girls to Be Victims     99
A Global Perspective on Wartime Rape     100
Why Men Rape Women     101
Psychological Theory: Sexual Inadequacy     101
Social Psychological Theory: Sexual Permissiveness      102
Feminist Theory: Gender Inequality     103
Males as Victims     103
Inside the Prison     103
Outside the Prison     105
Can Women Rape Men?     105
Child Molestation     107
Some Basic Facts     107
A Social Profile of Child Molesters     107
Molesting Boys     108
The Scandal of Pedophile Priests     108
Summary     110
Further Reading     111
Critical Thinking Questions     111
Family Violence     112
Myths about Family Violence     114
Family Violence Hits the Poor Only     114
Violence and Love Cannot Happen Together     114
Most Abused Children Grow Up to Be Abusive Parents     115
Alcohol and Drugs Are Involved in Most Family Violence     115
The Extent of Family Violence     115
Marital Rape     116
The Nature of Marital Rape     116
Causes of Marital Rape     117
Wife Beating     118
The Nature of Wife Beating     118
Why Don't Some Battered Wives Leave?     119
Causes of Wife Beating     120
Child Abuse      120
The Nature of Child Abuse     120
Causes of Child Abuse     122
Female Genital Mutilation     123
Elder Abuse     124
The Nature of Elder Abuse     124
Causes of Elder Abuse     125
A Social Profile of Family Abusers     126
A Global Perspective on Family Violence     127
Theories of Family Violence     128
Social Learning Theory     128
Stress Theory     128
Exchange Theory     128
Social Responses to Family Violence     129
Protecting Women     129
Protecting Children     130
Protecting Elders     130
Summary     131
Further Reading     133
Critical Thinking Questions     134
Self-Destructive Deviance     135
Suicide     137
Varieties of Suicidal Experiences     140
Threatening Suicide     140
Attempting Suicide     140
Committing Suicide     141
Groups with Higher Suicide Rates     143
Residents in Rural, Wide-Open Areas     144
Whites     145
The Less Religious     145
Males      146
The Divorced or Single     147
Older People     147
The Relatively Well-Off     148
A Social Profile of Suicide Bombers     149
Situational Factors in Suicide     150
Going through Adolescence     150
Going to College     151
Being in Prison     152
Being Stricken with AIDS     152
Under Media Influence     153
A Global Perspective on Suicide     154
Social Responses to Suicide     155
Survivors' Reactions     155
Advocating Suicide     156
Preventing Suicide     157
Sociological Theories of Suicide     158
Classical Durkheimian Theory     158
A Modern Durkheimian Theory     160
Phenomenological Theories     161
Summary     163
Further Reading     164
Critical Thinking Questions     165
Mental Disorder     166
Popular Beliefs     168
Types of Mental Disorder     169
Traditional Classification     170
DSM-IV Classification     173
Social Factors in Mental Disorder     175
Social Class      175
Gender     176
Young Age     176
A Social Profile of Depressed Teens     177
Race and Ethnicity     178
Urban Environment     179
September 11     179
A Global Perspective on Mental Disorder     180
Societal Responses to Mental Disorder     181
Historical Background     181
The Public     183
The Court     184
The Mental Hospital     186
The Community Mental Health Center     188
Perspectives on Mental Disorder     189
The Medical Model     189
The Psychosocial Model     190
The Labeling Model     192
Summary     196
Further Reading     197
Critical Thinking Questions     198
Diverse Lifestyles     199
Heterosexual Deviance     201
Teen Sex     203
Extramarital Sex     204
Seductive Myths     204
Cultural Variations     205
Social Factors     205
A Social Profile of Swingers     206
Pornography     208
The Porn Industry     208
The Effects of Pornography      209
Phone Sex     211
Nude Dancing     211
Sexual Harassment     212
The World of Prostitution     213
Myths about Prostitution     214
Types of Prostitutes     214
Social and Sexual Backgrounds     218
Reasons for Becoming Prostitutes     219
The Threat of AIDS from Customers     219
The Subculture of Prostitution     220
Other Participants in Prostitution     222
Societal Reaction to Prostitution     224
A Global Perspective on Prostitution     226
Theories of Prostitution     226
Functionalist Theory     227
Feminist Theory     227
Social Psychological Theory     228
Summary     229
Further Reading     231
Critical Thinking Questions     232
Gays and Other Victims of Stigma     233
Myths about Homosexuality     235
Gays and Lesbians     236
How Many Are There?     237
What Are Gays Like?     238
What Are Lesbians Like?     239
Coming Out     240
Gay and Lesbian Lifestyles     241
Theories of Homosexuality     244
Same-Sex Practices among Straights and Bisexuals     246
Trades     246
Street Hustlers     246
Situationals     247
Bisexuals     248
Homophobia     248
The Homophobic View of Homosexuality     249
The Nature and Extent of Homophobia     250
A Social Profile of Homophobes     250
The Impact of Homophobia     251
AIDS, Gays, and Straights     252
Fighting Homophobia     253
A Global Perspective on Homophobia     254
Other Victims of Social Stigma     255
Transgenderists: Transsexuals, Intersexuals, and Transvestites     255
People with Physical Disabilities     256
The Obese     258
The Tattooed     259
Summary     261
Further Reading     262
Critical Thinking Questions     263
Substance Use and Abuse     265
Drug Use     267
Drug Use in Perspective     269
Illegal Drugs: Their Effects and Users     270
Marijuana     270
Heroin     272
Cocaine and Crack     274
Meth and Roofies     276
Ecstasy     277
Social Dimensions of Drug Use     278
The Extent of Drug Use     278
Moral Panic: Societal Reaction to Drug Use     279
Drugs and AIDS     280
Drugs and Crime     280
Drugs and Socioeconomic Status     281
Becoming a Drug User     282
A Social Profile of Illegal Drug Users     284
What Causes Illegal Drug Use?     284
Economic Deprivation Theory     285
Cognitive Association Theory     286
Social Psychological Theory     286
The War on Drugs     287
Historical Pattern     288
Punitive Strategy: Law Enforcement     289
Debate over Legalizing Drugs     289
Supportive Strategy: Prevention and Treatment     290
Abusing Prescription Drugs, Particularly OxyContin     292
Smoking Cigarettes     294
A Global Perspective on Smoking     295
Summary     296
Further Reading     297
Critical Thinking Questions     298
Drinking and Alcoholism     299
The Extent of Drinking and Alcoholism     301
Myths about Alcohol Abuse      301
What Alcohol Does to Its Users     302
Mental and Physical Impact     303
Health Effects     304
Social Consequences     304
Social Factors in Drinking     306
Gender and Age     306
Racial and Ethnic Background     306
Religious Affiliation     308
Socioeconomic Status     309
Regional Location     309
A Global Perspective on Drinking     310
What Is Alcoholism?     311
Becoming an Alcoholic     312
Social Drinker     312
Psychologically Addicted     313
Physically Addicted     313
Hitting Bottom     313
College Students and Alcohol     314
Binge Drinking in College     314
A Social Profile of College Binge Drinkers     315
Women and Alcohol     315
Why More Women Drink Today     316
Alcoholism among Women     316
What Causes Alcoholism?     317
A Biological Predisposition     317
The Alcoholic Personality     318
Social and Cultural Forces     319
Controlling Alcohol Use and Abuse     321
Legal Measures      321
Therapeutic Approaches     323
Summary     325
Further Reading     326
Critical Thinking Questions     327
Inequality in Deviance     329
Privileged Deviance     331
What Is White-Collar Deviance?     333
Corporate Deviance     334
Deviance against Employees     334
Deviance against Customers     335
Deviance against the Government     338
Deviance against the Environment     339
A Social Profile of Corporate Crooks     340
Occupational Deviance     341
Employee Theft     341
Embezzlement     342
Financial Frauds     343
Deviance in the Professions     344
What Makes White-Collar Deviance Unique?     346
The Deviant's Respectable Self-image     346
The Victim's Unwitting Cooperation     346
Society's Relative Indifference     347
Causes of White-Collar Deviance     348
Deviant Motivation: Fear of Loss and Greed for Gain     348
Deviant Opportunity: The Benefit of High Position and Power     349
Weak Social Control: Lax Law Enforcement      349
Governmental Deviance     350
Political Corruption     351
Election Improprieties     352
Official Violence     352
A Global Perspective on Official Corruption     353
Official Ways of Neutralizing Deviance     354
Denying the Obvious     354
Ignoring the Deviance     354
Accusing the Accuser     355
Promising to Take Action     355
Justifying the Deviance     356
Causes of Governmental Deviance     356
Superabundance of Ambiguous Laws     356
Governmental Complexity and Power     357
Summary     357
Further Reading     359
Critical Thinking Questions     360
Underprivileged Deviance     361
Robbery     363
Robbery as a Property Crime     363
Robbery as a Violent Crime     364
Patterns of Robbery     365
Amateur and Professional Robbers     366
Causes of Robbery     368
Auto Theft and Carjacking     369
Characteristics and Trends     369
Causes     370
Burglary     370
Modus Operandi      370
Causes of Burglary     371
Shoplifting     372
A Social Profile of Shoplifters     372
Causes of Shoplifting     372
Organized Crime     373
Organizational Structure     373
Organized Crime Activities     374
Ethnicity and Organized Crime     376
The War on Organized Crime in the United States     377
A Global Perspective on Organized Crime     378
Summary     379
Further Reading     381
Critical Thinking Questions     382
Cyberspace: Wild Frontier     383
Internet Deviance     385
Seeking Easy Money Online     387
Online Identity Theft     387
Internet Gambling     388
Searching Cyberspace for Sex     390
Cybersex     390
Internet Pornography     391
A Social Profile of Cyberporn Surfers     392
Online Affairs     393
Expressing Hate Online     394
Prejudice and Discrimination in Cyberspace     394
Stalking through Cyberspace     395
Disrupting Computer Networks     396
Computer Hacking     396
Terrorism in Cyberspace     398
A Global Perspective on Cyberdeviance     399
Summary     400
Further Reading     402
Critical Thinking Questions     402
References     403
Name Index     438
Subject Index     448

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