Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatric Trauma

Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatric Trauma

by J.L. Gwinn, P. Stanley

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1980)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781447131021
Publisher: Springer London
Publication date: 03/19/2012
Series: Current Diagnostic Pediatrics
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1980
Pages: 202
Product dimensions: 8.27(w) x 11.02(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 2 Urinary Tract Trauma.- 2.1 Renal Trauma.- 2.1.1 Classification of Injury.- 2.1.1.1 Contusion of the Kidney.- 2.1.1.2 Parenchymal Injury Without Pyelocalyceal Involvement.- 2.1.1.3 Parenchymal Injury with Pyelocalyceal Involvement.- 2.1.1.4 Renal Pedicle Injury.- 2.1.2 Iatrogenic Trauma.- 2.1.3 Management and Complications.- 2.2 Ureteral Trauma.- 2.3 Bladder Trauma.- 2.4 Urethral Trauma.- References.- 3 Neuroradiology in Head Trauma.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.1.1 General Comments.- 3.1.2 Skull X-rays.- 3.1.3 Angiography.- 3.1.4 Computerized Tomography.- 3.1.5 Echoencephalography.- 3.1.6 Air Studies.- 3.1.7 Radionuclide Brain Scanning.- 3.2 Trauma Involving the Pediatric Skull.- 3.2.1 Skull Fractures — General Comments.- 3.2.2 Fractures Involving the Skull Base, Paranasal Sinuses, and Petromastoid Structures.- 3.2.3 Depressed Skull Fractures.- 3.2.3.1 General Comments.- 3.2.3.2 In Infancy.- 3.2.4 Trauma to the Infant’s Skull.- 3.2.4.1 Molding.- 3.2.4.2 Cephalohematoma.- 3.2.5 Enlarging Skull Fractures.- 3.2.6 Roentgenographic Changes in Head Bangers.- 3.2.7 Intracranial Foreign Bodies.- 3.3 Intracranial Hemorrhage and Cerebral Trauma.- 3.3.1 Fundamental Considerations.- 3.3.2 Intracerebral Hematoma.- 3.3.3 Intraventricular Hemorrhage.- 3.3.4 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.- 3.3.5 Subdural Hematoma.- 3.3.5.1 Timing and Density of Subdural Hematoma.- 3.3.5.2 Acute Subdural Hematoma.- 3.3.5.3 Isodense Subdural Hematoma.- 3.3.5.4 Chronic Subdural Hematoma.- 3.3.5.5 Skull Film in Subdural Hematoma.- 3.3.6 Extradural Hematoma.- 3.3.7 Cerebral Contusion.- 3.3.8 Cerebral Edema.- 3.3.9 Acute General Cerebral Swelling.- 3.4 Traumatic Vascular Lesions.- 3.4.1 Traumatic Aneurysms.- 3.4.2 Arteriovenous Fistulas.- 3.4.3 Dissecting Aneurysm.- 3.4.4 Posttraumatic Spasm.- 3.4.5 Increased Intracranial Pressure.- 3.4.6 Posttraumatic Arterial Stenosis and Occlusion.- 3.4.7 Strangling.- 3.4.8 Cerebral Infarction.- 3.4.9 Venous Sinus Occlusion.- 3.4.10 Subepicranial Varix.- 3.5 Conclusion: Neuroradiology in Head Trauma in Perspective.- References.- 4 Injuries to the Spine.- 4.1 Cervical Spine.- 4.1.1 Occipital-atlantoaxial Region.- 4.1.1.1 Pseudosubluxation of Axis.- 4.1.1.2 Atlanto-occipital Dislocation.- 4.1.1.3 Atlanto-occipital Instability.- 4.1.1.4 Jefferson Fracture (Vertical Compression Injury of C1).- 4.1.1.5 Extension Fracture of Atlas.- 4.1.1.6 Isolated Atlanto-axial Dislocation.- 4.1.1.7 Fractures of the Odontoid.- 4.1.1.8 Hangman’s Fracture.- 4.1.2 Injuries Below the Axis.- 4.1.2.1 Flexion Injuries.- 4.1.2.2 Hyperextension Injuries.- 4.1.2.3 Pathological Fractures.- 4.2 Thoracolumbar Spine.- 4.2.1 Flexion Injuries.- 4.2.2 Seat-belt Hyperflexion Injury.- 4.2.3 Compression.- 4.2.4 Rotation.- 4.2.5 Extension.- 4.2.6 Shearing.- 4.2.7 Transverse Process Fractures.- 4.2.8 Posttraumatic Deformity.- 4.3 Lumbosacral Spine.- 4.3.1 Fatigue or Stress Changes.- 4.3.2 Fractures of the Sacrum and Coccyx.- 4.3.3 Coccyx Injuries.- 4.3.4 Radiation Injury to the Lumbar Spine.- References.- 5 Facial and Temporal Bone Trauma.- 5.1 Facial Trauma.- 5.1.1 Roentgenographic Evaluation.- 5.1.2 Patterns of Facial Injury.- 5.1.2.1 Soft Tissues.- 5.1.2.2 Nasal Bones.- 5.1.2.3 Teeth.- 5.1.2.4 Mid Face.- 5.1.2.5 Orbital.- 5.1.2.6 Cribriform Plate.- 5.1.2.7 Temporomandibular Joint.- 5.1.2.8 Mandible.- 5.1.2.9 Complications.- 5.2 Temporal Bone Trauma.- 5.2.1 Neurosensory Hearing Loss.- 5.2.2 Conductive Hearing Loss.- 5.2.3 Facial Nerve Injury.- 5.2.4 Sequelae of Temporal Bone Trauma.- References.- 6 Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound in Pediatric Trauma.- 6.1 Brain.- 6.2 Lungs.- 6.3 Abdomen.- 6.3.1 Liver.- 6.3.2 Spleen.- 6.3.3 Pancreas.- 6.4 Renal.- 6.5 Bone.- 6.6 Conclusion.- References.- 7 Pancreatic and Adrenal Trauma.- 7.1 Pancreatic Trauma.- 7.2 Adrenal Trauma.- References.- 8 Injuries to the Liver and Spleen.- 8.1 Hepatic Trauma.- 8.1.1 Plain Films.- 8.1.2 Intravenous Urogram.- 8.1.3 Isotopes and Ultrasound.- 8.1.4 Arteriography.- 8.1.5 Cholangiography.- 8.1.6 Computerized Tomography.- 8.1.7 Radiation-induced Injury.- 8.2 Injuries to the Spleen.- References.- 9 Gastrointestinal Trauma.- 9.1 Stomach.- 9.1.1 Clinical.- 9.1.2 Roentgenographic.- 9.2 Duodenum.- 9.2.1 Clinical.- 9.2.2 Roentgenographic.- 9.3 Small Intestine.- 9.3.1 Clinical.- 9.3.2 Roentgenographic.- 9.4 Colon.- 9.4.1 Clinical.- 9.4.2 Roentgenographic.- 9.5 Summary.- References.- 10 Chest Trauma.- 10.1 Soft Tissues.- 10.2 Fractures of the Rib Cage and Sternum.- 10.3 Pneumothorax.- 10.4 Hemothorax.- 10.5 Chylothorax.- 10.6 Tracheobronchial Injury.- 10.7 Lung Contusion, Hematoma Formation, and Lung Cysts.- 10.8 Postshock Lung.- 10.9 Foreign Body Aspiration.- 10.10 Toxic Inhalation Pneumonitis.- 10.11 Near Drowning.- 10.12 Cardiac Contusion.- 10.13 Aortic Laceration/Rupture.- 10.14 Esophagus.- 10.15 Diaphragmatic Injury.- 10.16 Trauma Related to Artificial Support Systems and Resuscitation.- 10.16.1 Endotracheal Intubation.- 10.16.2 Vascular Catheters.- 10.16.3 Esophageal Pseudodiverticula in the Newborn.- 10.16.4 Respirator-related Problems.- 10.17 Trauma Related to Therapy.- 10.17.1 Radiation- and Chemotherapy-induced Pneumonitis.- 10.17.2 Tracheostomy Complications.- References.- 11 Skeletal Trauma.- 11.1 Diagnosis.- 11.2 Types of Fracture.- Epiphyseal Fractures.- 11.3 Types of Trauma.- 11.3.1 Intrauterine Trauma.- 11.3.2 Birth Trauma.- 11.3.3 Pathologic Fractures.- 11.3.4 Stress Fractures.- 11.3.5 Athletic Injuries.- 11.3.6 Battered Child Syndrome.- 11.4 Conclusion.- References.

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