Diderot and the Art of Thinking Freely528
Diderot and the Art of Thinking Freely528
A spirited biography of the prophetic and sympathetic philosopher who helped build the foundations of the modern world.
Denis Diderot is often associated with the decades-long battle to bring the world’s first comprehensive Encyclopédie into existence. But his most daring writing took place in the shadows. Thrown into prison for his atheism in 1749, Diderot decided to reserve his best books for posterity–for us, in fact. In the astonishing cache of unpublished writings left behind after his death, Diderot challenged virtually all of his century's accepted truths, from the sanctity of monarchy, to the racial justification of the slave trade, to the norms of human sexuality. One of Diderot’s most attentive readers during his lifetime was Catherine the Great, who not only supported him financially, but invited him to St. Petersburg to talk about the possibility of democratizing the Russian empire.
In this thematically organized biography, Andrew S. Curran vividly describes Diderot’s tormented relationship with Rousseau, his curious correspondence with Voltaire, his passionate affairs, and his often iconoclastic stands on art, theater, morality, politics, and religion. But what this book brings out most brilliantly is how the writer's personal turmoil was an essential part of his genius and his ability to flout taboos, dogma, and convention.
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Sometime during the snowy winter of 1793, under cover of night, a small group of thieves pried open a wooden door leading into the Church of Saint-Roch. Forced entry into the Paris sanctuary was nearly a weekly occurrence during this time of revolution. In the early 1790s, anticlerical vandals had pulled enormous religious paintings off the walls and slashed the canvases. Other trespassers had made off with more portable works of art, including an exquisite statue sculpted by Étienne-Maurice Falconet. On this particular night, however, the intruders came to steal whatever copper, silver, or lead they could ﬁnd in the crypt located underneath the Chapel of the Virgin. Setting to work in front of the chapel’s altar, the grave robbers used long iron bars to lever aside the mattress-sized marble slab in the center of the ﬂoor. Though they surely had no idea who was buried in the vault, the most loutish of the group, assuming he could read, would still have recognized the name of the writer Denis Diderot inscribed on one of the caskets. Dead for nine years, the notorious atheist had been the driving force behind the most controversial book project of the eighteenth century, the Encyclopédie.
This massive dictionary had not only dragged sacrilege and free-thinking out into the open, but triggered a decades-long scandal that involved the Sorbonne, the Paris Parlement, the Jesuits, the Jansenists, the king, and the pope.
None of this old history mattered to the burglars. After removing Diderot’s lead cofﬁn from the vault, the men simply shook his decomposing body onto the church’s marble ﬂoor. The following day, Denis Diderot’s remains (along with the other desecrated cadavers from the crypt) were presumably gathered up and transferred without ceremony to a mass grave about a mile to the east. Nobody noticed; nobody reported it in the press. Assuming the church’s few remaining parish priests had realized that Diderot had been buried in the church, they were undoubtedly relieved to be rid of the scandalous unbeliever.
Some twenty years before his remains were carted out of Saint-Roch, Diderot had prophetically remarked that whether “you rot beneath marble or under the ground, you still rot.” Yet being discarded and forgotten among a mound of recently guillotined aristocratic corpses would not have been his preference. Atheist or not, Diderot had long expressed a keen interest in being remembered and, if all things worked out, celebrated by future generations. “Posterity is to the philosophe,” he once stated, as “heaven is to the man of religion.”
Diderot’s interest in speaking to future generations from beyond the grave had come about out of necessity. In 1749, shortly after the then thirty-four-year-old writer had published a work of intemperate atheism entitled the Lettre sur les aveugles (Letter on the Blind), two gendarmes showed up at his house, arrested him, and dragged him off to Vincennes prison. Three months later, shortly before he was released, the lieutenant-général de police made a special trip to the prison to warn the writer that any further immoral or irreligious publications would bring about a jail sentence measured in decades, not months.
Diderot took this threat seriously. For the next thirty-three years, he avoided publishing the kind of inﬂammatory books that he had authored as a young man. Much of the energy that he might have devoted to such endeavors was redirected toward the all-consuming Encyclopédie. When he ﬁnally completed the last volume of illustrations, in 1772, the now-elderly writer was well aware that he was a celebrity throughout Europe and even in parts of North America, but he was not really considered a literary great. His fate, as he admitted quite openly, was perhaps to “survive” long after his reputation as an Encyclopedist had faded, growing ever older and vanishing without leaving a signiﬁcant work behind. This, in fact, seemed to be the case when he died in 1784. Although several obituaries credited him for being the leader of the generation of thinkers that had utterly changed the country, they also hinted that he had not lived up to his indisputable genius. Even his friends reluctantly agreed. Jacques-Henri Meister, who revered the man, wistfully acknowledged that Diderot never produced a book that would have placed him among the ﬁrst tier of “our philosophes or our poets.”
Charitable friends blamed the writer’s supposedly limited literary production on the burden of the Encyclopédie. Others privately ascribed this failing to his famously whirligig brain. As was often the case, the sharp-tongued Voltaire, who both admired and distrusted Diderot, came up with the cleverest remark on the subject; he apparently joked that the Encyclopedist’s mind “was an oven that burns everything that it cooks.”
What Voltaire and virtually everybody else did not know was that Diderot had actually written an astonishing range of improbably modern books and essays for the drawer, as the French like to say. Holed up in his sixth-ﬂoor garret ofﬁce on the rue Taranne for the last third of his life, Diderot produced this cache of writing with the hope that it might one day explode like a bomb. This moment was prepared for carefully. When the author reached his sixties — borrowed time during the eighteenth century — he hired copyists to produce three separate collections of manuscripts. The ﬁrst and most complete set was entrusted to his daughter, Angélique, whom we know as Madame de Vandeul; a second, less complete group of writings was transferred to his designated literary heir and devotee, Jacques-André Naigeon. And six months after his death, thirty-two bound volumes of manuscripts along with Diderot’s entire library of three thousand books traveled by ship to Catherine the Great in Saint Petersburg.
Diderot’s unedited books, essays, and criticism far surpassed what he had published during his lifetime. Among these writings were two very dissimilar, but equally brilliant novels. The ﬁrst of these, La religieuse (The Nun), is a gripping pseudo-memoir of a nun who suffers unspeakably cruel abuse after she announces that she wants to leave her convent. The second, Jacques le fataliste, is an open-ended antinovel where Diderot used ﬁction to take up the problem of free will. But there were also thick notebooks of revolutionary art criticism, a godless science-ﬁction-like chronicle of the human race, a secret political treatise written for Catherine the Great, a humorous satire on the absurdity of Christian sexual mores set in Tahiti, as well as some of the most moving love letters in the history of French literature. To become familiar with the range of Diderot’s work is to be stupeﬁed: among other things, the philosophe dreamed of natural selection before Darwin, the Oedipus complex before Freud, and genetic manipulation two hundred years before Dolly the Sheep was engineered.
These hidden works did not appear in the months after Diderot died; they trickled out over the course of decades. Several of his lost books were published during the waning years of the French Revolution; others appeared during the course of the Bourbon Restoration (1814–30), while still more of his writing emerged during the Second Empire (1852–70). Perhaps the most signiﬁcant addition to Diderot’s corpus came in 1890 when a librarian discovered a complete manuscript version of Diderot’s masterpiece, Le neveu de Rameau (Rameau’s Nephew), in a bouquiniste’s stand on the banks of the Seine. In this riotous philosophical dialogue, the writer courageously gave life to an unforgettable anti-hero who extolled the virtues of evil and social parasitism while preaching the right to unbridled pleasure.
To say that the arrival of these lost books had an effect on subsequent generations would be putting it mildly. Diderot’s effusive art criticism inspired Stendhal, Balzac, and Baudelaire. Émile Zola credited Diderot’s “vivisections” of society as the foundation of the naturalism that characterized his and Balzac’s novels. Social theorists, too, were spellbound by Diderot’s prescient thought. Karl Marx, who borrowed deeply from Diderot’s musings on class struggle, listed the writer as his favorite author. And Sigmund Freud credited the ancien régime thinker for recognizing the unconscious psychosexual desires of childhood in Rameau’s Nephew long before he or his fellow psychoanalysts had. If many critics continued to disdain the writer as too atheistic, too paradoxical, and too unrestrained, Diderot was nonetheless becoming the preferred writer of the nineteenth-century avant-garde.
The full extent of Diderot’s inﬂuence was not truly known, however, until a young German-American academic, Herbert Dieckmann, located the ﬁnal lost cache of Diderot’s writings. Having heard rumors that Diderot’s conservative descendants continued to possess some of the lost manuscripts originally given to the writer’s daughter, the Harvard professor ﬁnally obtained permission to visit the family château in Normandy in 1948. After overcoming the postwar suspicions of the caretaker, who was initially put off by his German-accented French, Dieckmann was ultimately directed to some armoires on the château’s second ﬂoor. Entering a room that contained several large free-standing closets, he sidled over to the ﬁrst one and peeled back the door panel. Hoping, perhaps, to ﬁnd a lost work or two, he was confronted with an enormous stockpile of Diderot’s bound manuscripts. So stunned was Dieckmann that he simply dropped to the ﬂoor. Diderot’s ﬁnal cache, the lost collection of manuscripts he had given to his daughter, had at last been found.
What are now known as the Vandeul archives — labeled as such since they came from Diderot’s daughter — have become the most important source for what we know about Diderot and his works. Most astonishing, perhaps, was the discovery of several manuscripts annotated in his hand that revealed that he had been the primary ghostwriter for abbé Raynal’s Histoire philosophique et politique des deux Indes (Philosophical and Political History of the Two Indies), the best-selling critical examination of European colonization. It had been Diderot, as it turned out, who had penned the most inﬂuential and best-known anticolonial sections of this multivolume book, including an imagined exchange between an enslaved African who not only claimed the right to be free, but who predicted a day when Caribbean slaves would justiﬁably put their masters to the sword. Composed in 1779, a decade before the events in Saint-Domingue (Haiti) would prove him right, this is perhaps the most telling example of the writer’s radical politics, not to mention his ability to see into the future. Some three hundred years after he was born, Diderot has now become the most relevant of Enlightenment philosophers. That he refrained from publishing (or taking credit for) his most forward-looking ideas during his lifetime was not simply a matter of avoiding persecution; he intentionally chose to forgo a conversation with his contemporaries in order to have a more fruitful dialogue with later generations — us, in short. His heartfelt hope was that we, the sympathetic and enlightened interlocutors of the future, might ﬁnally be capable of sitting in judgment of his hidden writings, writings that not only question the moral, aesthetic, political, and philosophical conventions of the ancien régime, but our own as well.
Table of Contents
Prologue Unburying Diderot 1
Part 1 Forbidden Fruits
I The Abbot from Langres 19
II Leaving God 49
III A Philosophe in Prison 75
IV The Enlightenment Bible 101
V The Encyclopédie Hair Shirt 133
Part 2 Late Harvest
VI On Virtue and Vice 179
VII On Art: Diderot at the Louvre 201
VIII On the Origin of Species 233
IX The Sexologist 259
X On Love 293
XI A Voyage to Russia: Politics, Philosophy, and Catherine the Great 315
XII Last Words: Speaking to Despots and American Insurgents 345
Epilogue Walking between Two Eternities 375
Cast of Characters 417
Works Cited 479