Digital Airborne Camera: Introduction and Technology

Digital Airborne Camera: Introduction and Technology

by Rainer Sandau (Editor)

Paperback(2010)

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Overview

Digital Airborne Camera: Introduction and Technology by Rainer Sandau

Digital airborne cameras are now penetrating the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing. Due to the last decade's results in research and development in the fields of for instance detector technology, computing power, memory capacity position and orientation measurement it is now possible with this new generation of airborne cameras to generate different sets of geometric and spectral data with high geometric and radiometric resolutions within a single flight. This is a decisive advantage as compared to film based airborne cameras. The linear characteristic of the opto-electronic converters is the basis for the transition from an imaging camera to an images generating measuring instrument. Because of the direct digital processing chain from the airborne camera to the data products there is no need for the processes of chemical film development and digitising the film information. Failure sources as well as investments and staff costs are avoided. But the effective use of this new technology requires the knowledge of the features of the image and information generation, its possibilities and its restrictions.

This book describes all components of a digital airborne camera from the object to be imaged to the mass memory device. So the image qualit influencing processes in nature are described, as for instance the reflection of the electromagnetic sun spectrum at the objects to be imaged and the influence of the atmosphere. Also, the essential features of the new digital sensor system, their characteristics and parameters, are addressed and put into the system context. The complexity of the cooperation of all camera components, as for instance optics, filters, detector elements, analogue and digital electronics, software and so forth, becomes transparent. The book includes also the description of example systems.

Audience: This book will be of interest to managers, operators, data users dealing with new digital airborne cameras. Students in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing will also find valuable information in this book.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789400791237
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 09/01/2014
Edition description: 2010
Pages: 343
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

About the Author

1

Dr. Rainer Sandau, PhD 1997 and habilitation 1990, is Chief Scientist at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin, Germany. He has over 25 years of experience in airborne and spaceborne remote sensing activities. He was involved in optoelectronic ins

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 From Analogue to Digital Airborne Cameras 1

1.2 Applications for Digital Airborne Cameras in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 8

1.3 Aircraft Camera or Satellite Camera 13

1.3.1 Detection, Recognition, Identification 16

1.4 Matrix Concept or Line Concept 20

1.5 Selection of Commercial Digital Airborne Cameras 27

1.5.1 ADS80 27

1.5.2 DMC 29

1.5.3 UltraCam 29

2 Foundations and Definitions 31

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Basic Properties of Light 34

2.3 Fourier Transforms 41

2.4 Linear Systems 56

2.5 Sampling 69

2.6 Radiometric Resolution and Noise 78

2.7 Colour 89

2.8 Time Resolution and Related Properties 95

2.9 Comparison of Film and CCD 99

2.9.1 Comparison of the Imaging Process and the Characteristic Curve 99

2.9.2 Sensitivity 101

2.9.3 Noise 102

2.9.4 Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) 102

2.9.5 Dynamic Range 103

2.9.6 MTF 104

2.9.7 MTF Snr 104

2.9.8 Stability of Calibration 105

2.9.9 Spectral Range 106

2.9.10 Summary 107

2.10 Sensor Orientation 107

2.10.1 Georeferencing of Sensor Data 107

2.10.2 Brief Review of GVP Concepts GPS 116

2.10.3 Basics of Inertial Navigation 121

2.10.4 Concepts of Inertial/GPS Integration 128

3 The Imaged Object and the Atmosphere 131

3.1 Radiation in Front of the Sensor 131

3.2 Radiation at the Sensor 134

3.3 Contrast of a Scene at the Sensor 137

3.4 Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function BRDF 138

4 Structure of a Digital Airborne Camera 143

4.1 Introduction 143

4.1.1 Example 149

4.2 Optics and Mechanics 151

4.2.1 Effect of Geometry 151

4.2.2 The Effect of the Wave Nature of Light 153

4.2.3 Space-Bandwidth Product 153

4.2.4 Principal Rays 154

4.2.5 Physical Imaging Model 154

4.2.6 Data Transfer Rate of High Performance Optical System 155

4.2.7 Camera Constant and "Pinhole" Model 156

4.2.8 Pupil Characteristics 157

4.2.9 Design and Manufacturing Aspects 159

4.2.10 Summary of the Geometric Properties of an Image 160

4.2.11 Aberrations and Precision of Registration 169

4.2.12 Radiometric Characteristics 171

4.2.13 Ideal Optical Transfer Function 172

4.2.14 Real Optical Transfer Function 175

4.2.15 Field Dependency of the Optical Transfer Function 177

4.3 Filter 180

4.3.1 Absorption Filters 180

4.3.2 Interference Filters 183

4.4 Opto-Electronic Converters 183

4.4.1 Operating Principle 184

4.4.2 CCD Architectures 188

4.4.3 Properties and Parameters 196

4.5 Focal Plane Module 210

4.5.1 Basic Structure of a Focal Plane Module 210

4.6 Up-Front Electronic Components 212

4.6.1 CCD Control 213

4.6.2 Signal Pre-Processing 215

4.6.3 Analogue-Digital Conversion 217

4.7 Digital Computer 221

4.7.1 The Control Computer 221

4.7.2 Data Compression 227

4.7.3 Data Memory/Data Storage 231

4.8 Flight Management System 232

4.8.1 Flight Planning 233

4.8.2 Flight Evaluation 234

4.8.3 Flight Execution 234

4.8.4 Operator and Pilot Interface 236

4.8.5 Operator Concept 237

4.9 System for Measurement of Position and Attitude 238

4.9.1 GPS/IMU System in Operational Use 238

4.9.2 Integration of GPS/IMU Systems with Imaging Sensors 245

4.10 Camera Mount 250

4.10.1 Rigid Mount 250

4.10.2 Frequency Spectrum in Aircraft and MTF 250

4.10.3 Uncontrolled Camera Mount 257

4.10.4 Controlled Camera Mount 258

5 Calibration 261

5.1 Geometric Calibration 261

5.2 Determination of Image Quality 267

5.3 Radiometric Calibration 268

6 Data Processing and Archiving 273

7 Examples of Large-Scale Digital Airborne Cameras 279

7.1 The ADS40 System: A Multiple-Line Sensor for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 279

7.1.1 Introduction 279

7.1.2 The Digital Control Unit 286

7.1.3 Sensor Management 290

7.1.4 The Flight Planning and Navigation Software 292

7.1.5 The Position and Attitude Measurement System 293

7.1.6 The Gyro Stabilized Mount for the ADS40 294

7.1.7 The Radiometric und Geometric Calibration 295

7.1.8 Data Processing 297

7.1.9 Images Acquired with the ADS40 299

7.2 Intergraph DMC Digital Mapping Camera 307

7.2.1 Introduction 307

7.2.2 Lens Cone - Basic Design of the DMC 308

7.2.3 Innovative Shutter Technology 309

7.2.4 CCD Sensor and Forward Motion Compensation 309

7.2.5 DMC Radiometric Resolution 311

7.2.6 DMC Airborne System Configuration 311

7.2.7 System Calibration and Photogrammetric Accuracy 312

7.3 UltraCam, Digital Large Format Aerial Frame Camera System 313

7.3.1 Introduction 313

7.3.2 UltraCamX Produces the Largest Format Digital Frame Images 314

7.3.3 UltraCam Design Concept 317

7.3.4 Geometric Calibration 320

7.3.5 Geometric Accuracy at the 1 ?m Level 323

7.3.6 Radiometric Quality and Multispectral Capability 327

7.3.7 The Potential of Digital Frame Cameras 328

7.3.8 Microsoft Photogrammetry 329

Abbreviations 333

Bibliography 335

Index 341

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