ISBN-10:
0130856347
ISBN-13:
9780130856340
Pub. Date:
05/25/2000
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Digital Systems: Principles and Applications / Edition 8

Digital Systems: Principles and Applications / Edition 8

by Ronald J. Tocci, Neal Widmer

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Overview

NEW! The eighth edition features more coverage of programmable logic devices (PLDs). This technology is rapidly replacing the use of conventional small- and medium-scale ICs in modern digital systems. Interspersed throughout the text where appropriate, this PLD coverage offers students an alternative means of implementing digital logic circuits, from the simplest gates to complex systems.

NEW! Each text is packaged with two free CD-ROMs. The first CD-ROM contains the entire library of Texas Instruments Logic Data Sheets, including all TTL series, CMOS, and bus interface parts. The second CD-ROM contains:

  • Circuits from the text rendered in both Electronics Workbench™ and CircuitMaker ® software programs. Students with access to Electronics Workbench software can open and work interactively with the Electronics Workbench circuit files to increase their understanding of concepts and to prepare for laboratory activities. Free CircuitMaker Student Version software is included on the CD-ROM, enabling students to access the CircuitMaker files.
  • A limited-compile demonstration version of the PAL Expert CUPL language compiler from Logical Devices, Inc.

UPDATED! Topics that apply to digital signal processing (DSP), a very rapidly advancing technology in electronics, have been expanded and improved.

UPDATED! Digital logic technology coverage and terms often encountered in personal computer literature have been updated and improved.

UPDATED! Students have free access to the text's Companion Website at ...

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780130856340
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 05/25/2000
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 881
Product dimensions: 7.99(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.49(d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book is a comprehensive study of the principles and techniques of modern digital systems. It is intended for use in two- and four-year programs in technology, engineering, and computer science. Although a background in basic electronics is helpful, the majority of the material requires no electronics training. Those portions of the text that utilize electronic concepts can be skipped without adversely affecting the comprehension of the logic principles.

General Improvements

This eighth edition contains several general improvements to the seventh edition. All of the material has been checked for currency and updated wherever necessary. Some of the material has been rewritten for greater clarity and completeness. Several new examples, section review questions, and end-of-chapter problems have been added, both to reinforce the new text material and to support the retained material better.

PLD COVERAGE The most striking change in this eighth edition of Digital Systems: Principles and Applications is the new approach to teaching programmable logic devices (PLDs). This book has been rewritten to teach the PLD as one of the ways, along with traditional integrated circuits, to implement circuits from the simplest gates to the most complicated digital systems. Whenever a major change in technology occurs, there is a period during which educational institutions must decide when and how to change the way they teach related topics. Some of us remember the transition from vacuum tubes to transistors, and most of us remember the shift from transistor circuits to op-amps. Over the past 15 years, the technologyof digital systems has moved toward programmable logic. Very few new digital systems today use small-scale and medium-scale integrated circuits in anything other than a minor role. Most modern digital circuitry is contained in a programmable device, gate array, or full custom integrated circuit. Still, in order to learn how to create those "systems in a chip," students must first understand the building blocks, such as decoders, multiplexers, adders, buffers, latches, registers, counters, and so on. In introductory lab-based courses, the wiring and testing of these building blocks is still a vital part of the pedagogy. It solidifies concepts such as binary inputs and outputs, physical device operation, and practical limitations. It also provides a realistic forum for developing troubleshooting skills.

The wiring of these circuits on a conventional breadboard still provides a means of learning that is not attainable through graphics, simulation, or text descriptions. However, programmable devices can be used to demonstrate these concepts just as effectively as medium-scale integrated circuits. Because the means to implement these circuits in current technology is with the PLD, the skills necessary to use PLDs must be developed concurrently with the knowledge of basic building blocks. We believe that PLDs can be used to implement logic circuits long before the student has acquired enough knowledge to fully understand all of the inner workings of a PLD. In so doing, students are given a chance to learn the development and programming steps using relatively simple circuits. Later they can expand their knowledge of advanced features of programming languages as they become aware of more advanced circuits. Eventually, after learning all the building blocks, students can understand the circuitry of a PLD in order to take full advantage of its capabilities and realize its limitations.

SEQUENCING Our approach to PLDs in this edition gives instructors three options: (1) The PLD material can be skipped in its entirety without affecting the continuity of the text; (2) PLDs can be taught as a separate topic by skipping PLD material initially and then going back to the last sections of Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9 before reading Chapter 12; or (3) PLDs can be introduced as the course unfolds—chapter by chapter—and woven into the fabric of the lecture/lab experience. We believe our approach will provide maximum flexibility for a variety of courses and objectives.

It is a rare instructor who uses the chapters of a textbook in the sequence in which they are presented. This book was written so that, for the most part, each chapter builds on previous material, but it is possible to alter the chapter sequence somewhat. The first part of Chapter 6 (arithmetic operations) can be covered right after Chapter 2 (number systems), although this would produce a long interval before the arithmetic circuits of Chapter 6 are encountered. Much of the material in Chapter 8 (IC characteristics) can be covered earlier (e.g., after Chapter 4 or 5) without causing any serious problems.

This book can be used either in a one-term course or in a two-term sequence. When used in one term, it may be necessary, depending on available class hours, to omit some topics. Here is a list of sections and chapters that can be deleted with minimal disruption. Obviously, the choice of deletions will depend on factors such as program or course objectives and student background:

 Chapter 1: All
Chapter 2: Section 6
Chapter 4: Sections 7, 10-14
Chapter 5: Sections 3, 24-26
Chapter 6: Sections 5-7, 11, 13, 16-20
Chapter 7:Sections 10, 14, 23-25
Chapter 8: Sections 11, 14-21
Chapter 9: Sections 5, 9, 15
Chapter 10: Sections 7, 14-18
Chapter 11: Sections 17-21
Chapter 12: All

PROBLEM SETS The seventh edition contained four categories of problems: challenging (C), troubleshooting (T), new (N), and design (D). The eighth edition adds the category of basic (B) to designate problems that are very fundamental applications of the concepts in that particular chapter. Also, we have added more problems that exercise a basic understanding. Undesignated problems are considered to be of intermediate difficulty, between basic and challenging.

DATA SHEETS Although a few data sheets are retained in Appendix B, the accompanying CDROM is now the primary source of manufacturers' data sheets. The information on this single CD is equivalent to an entire shelf full of data books covering all TTL, CMOS, and high-speed bus interface logic ICs. We feel this will provide students with a much more complete reference resource while retaining enough printed data sheets to teach them how to read and interpret data sheet content in the absence of a computer with CD-ROM capability.

SIMULATION FILES This edition also includes simulation files that can be loaded into Electronics Workbench and CircuitMaker. The circuit schematics of many of the figures throughout the text have been captured as input files for these two popular simulation tools. Each file has some way of demonstrating the operation of the circuit or reinforcing a concept. In many cases, instruments are attached to the circuit and input sequences are applied to demonstrate the concept presented in one of the figures of the text. These circuits can then be modified as desired to expand on topics or create assignments and tutorials for students. All figures in the text that have a corresponding simulation file on the CD-ROM are identified by an icon.

IC TECHNOLOGY This new edition continues the practice begun with the last two editions of giving more prominence to CMOS as the principal IC technology in the small- and medium-scale integration applications. This has been accomplished while still retaining the substantial coverage of TTL logic.

REAL-WORLD APPLICATIONS The examples of real-world applications that were distributed throughout previous editions have been retained to motivate those students who ask, "Why do we need to know this?" Some examples are copy machine control circuits, liquid process control sequencer circuits, space shuttle battery-voltage monitor, digital thermostat, and a look-up table function generator. PLD examples are chosen to offer an alternate way to implement equivalent SSI and MSI circuitry that is explained earlier in the text. However, new PLD examples are included that consolidate several types of circuits and several design methods in a single PLD system. For example, the universal stepper motor driver depicted in Figure P-1 uses a single GAL 16V8 to implement the sequencer, decoder, and tristate buffered outputs for an interface circuit that is very useful when working with stepper motors in the lab. Figure P-2 shows a scanned keypad encoder that is very useful as an input device to microprocessors and other digital systems. It includes sequential ring counter circuits as well as encoders and tristate output control. These are circuits that can easily be built and used in future experiments involving digital systems.

Specific Changes

The major changes in the topical coverage are:

  • Chapter 1. A look at the "digital future" has been updated.
  • Chapter 2. This chapter now covers new and improved methods for using calculators to perform conversions between number systems.
  • Chapter 3. IEEE standard symbol coverage has been reduced.
  • Chapter 4. (1) Material on K-mapping, including a complete example using "don't cares," has been added. (2) PLDs are introduced as another way of implementing logic circuits. The general concepts of PLD hardware are introduced in the simplest possible way, showing basic sum-of-products circuits programmed using fuse technology. This chapter describes the required computer hardware and programming fixture along with the role each plays in the development process. A specific high-level hardware description language is introduced and a simple combinational logic circuit is implemented as an example of the entire process.
  • Chapter 5. Logic circuits with feedback, including SR and D latches, are implemented using PLDs. The state transition method of hardware description is used to implement a simple counter circuit on a PLD.
  • Chapter 6. A section is added that demonstrates a 4-bit full adder implemented on a PLD. The use of set notation in the hardware description language is introduced along with indexed variables to combine 4-bit data sets logically.
  • Chapter 7. (1) Material on the 74178 (obsolete) has been deleted, and coverage of the 74165 and 74174 ICs has been expanded. (2) The registered outputs of PLDs are introduced along with two more methods of specifying the state sequence of a counter circuit (state machine).
  • Chapter 8. Several incremental revisions and changes in technology have motivated a substantial rearrangement of topics in Chapter 8. Ball grid array packages are introduced. All TTL examples and data sheets now feature the ALS series, while the fundamental circuit characteristics are described using the more easily understood standard TTL. In addition, the topical coverage of MOS and CMOS has been consolidated and the coverage of PMOS and NMOS reduced to reflect current industrial use and emphasis on CMOS as the most popular technology today. ECL material is updated. The continued expansion of low-voltage technologies is updated. Open-collector and open-drain circuit descriptions are consolidated to eliminate redundancy and tristate logic coverage is improved. The high-speed bus interface series are also introduced, along with a brief introduction to the nature of transmission lines and the need for bus terminations.
  • Chapter 9. This chapter describes color LCD displays and technology used in laptop computer screens. Gas discharge (vacuum fluorescent) displays and two IEEE notation sections have been deleted. A section on PLDs covers the use of the truth table method of hardware description. Conventional MSIC functions are implemented using PLDs.
  • Chapter 10. The section on sampling has been expanded to address the issue of minimum sample rate (Nyquist) and signal abasing. The application of A/D and D/A converters to the rapidly growing field of digital signal processing is expanded with a basic and easy-to-understand introduction to DSP.
  • Chapter 11. All PLD material has been edited or moved to other areas of the text, mostly Chapter 12. Coverage of terms and concepts often referred to in PC literature is expanded, including a snapshot of the transient state of DRAM technology, definition of latency and its effect on execution speed, as well as a description of L1 and L2 cache systems in modern PCs. Circular buffers are introduced as a memory structure due to their prevalent use in DSP systems.
  • Chapter 12. This chapter has been rewritten to begin with an overview of the internal hardware of simple PLDs. The material from Chapter 11 of the seventh edition has been revised and combined with material from Chapter 12. The popular GAL 22V10 is also introduced with an example that requires its added capability. Two complete and very practical digital systems-a universal stepper motor driver and a scanned keypad encoder-are implemented using a single PLD. Material has been added to offer a glimpse into the real world of advanced digital system design by describing other hardware definition languages (HDL) and the general architecture of the more advanced field programmable gate arrays.
  • Appendix A. The material on microprocessors (Chapter 13 in past editions) has admittedly been a superficial introduction to a very important and complex subject. We believe most programs cover this material in another course and use a text dedicated to the subject. Consequently, we have relegated the material to Appendix A with intentions of eventually phasing this material out of the book. We invite feedback on these plans by way of the Prentice Hall Companion Website for this book, ...

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Chapter Summary, Important Terms, Problems, and Answers to Section Review Questions.)
1. Introductory Concepts.

Numerical Representations. Digital and Analog Systems. Digital Number Systems. Representing Binary Quantities. Digital Circuits/Logic Circuits. Parallel and Series Transmission. Memory. Digital Computers.

2. Number Systems and Codes.
Binary-to-Decimal Conversions. Decimal-to-Binary Conversions. Octal Number System. Hexadecimal Number System. BCD Code. Putting It All Together. The Byte. Alphanumeric Codes. Parity Method for Error Detection. Applications.

3. Logic Gates and Boolean Algebra.
Boolean Constants and Variables. Truth Tables. OR Operation with OR Gates. AND Operation with AND Gates. NOT Operation. Describing Logic Circuits Algebraically. Evaluating Logic-Circuit Outputs. Implementing Circuits from Boolean Expressions. NOR Gates and NAND Gates. Boolean Theorems. DeMorgan's Theorems. Universality of NAND Gates and NOR Gates. Alternate Logic-Gate Representations. Which Gate Representation to Use. IEEE/ANSI Standard Logic Symbols.

4. Combinational Logic Circuits.
Sum-of-Products Form. Simplifying Logic Circuits. Algebraic Simplification. Designing Combinational Logic Circuits. Karnaugh Map Method. Exclusive-OR and Exclusive-NOR Circuits. Parity Generator and Checker. Enable/Disable Circuits. Basic Characteristics of Digital ICs. Troubleshooting Digital Systems. Internal Digital IC Faults. ExternalFaults. Troubleshooting Case Study. Programmable Logic Devices.

5. Flip-Flops and Related Devices.
NAND Gate Latch. NOR Gate Latch. Troubleshooting Case Study. Clock Signals and Clocked Flip-Flops. Clocked S-C Flip-Flop. Clocked J-K Flip-Flop. Clocked D Flip-Flop. D Latch (Transparent Latch). Asynchronous Inputs. IEEE/ANSI Symbols. Flip-Flop Timing Considerations. Potential Timing Problem In FF Circuits. Master/Slave Flip-Flops. Flip-Flop Applications. Flip-Flop Synchronization. Detecting an Input Sequence. Data Storage and Transfer. Serial Data Transfer: Shift Registers. Frequency Division and Counting. Microcomputer Application. Schmitt-Trigger Devices. One-Shot (Monostable Multivibrator). Analyzing Sequential Circuits. Clock Generator Circuits. Troubleshooting Flip-Flop Circuits. Applications Using Programmable Logic Devices.

6. Digital Arithmetic: Operations and Circuits.
Binary Addition. Representing Signed Numbers. Addition in the 2's-Complement System. Subtraction in the 2's-Complement System. Multiplication of Binary Numbers. Binary Division. BCD Addition. Hexadecimal Arithmetic. Arithmetic Circuits. Parallel Binary Adder. Design of a Full Adder. Complete Parallel Adder with Registers. Carry Propagation. Integrated-Circuit Parallel Adder. 2's-Complement System. BCD Adder. ALU Integrated Circuits. IEEE/ANSI Symbols. Troubleshooting Case Study. A PLD Full Adder.

7. Counters and Registers.
Part I. Asynchronous (Ripple) Counters. Counters with MOD Numbers 2 ^N. IC Asynchronous Counters. Asynchronous Down Counter. Propagation Delay in Ripple Counters. Synchronous (Parallel) Counters. Synchronous Down and Up/Down Counters. Presettable Counters. The 74LS193/HC193. More On The IEEE/ANSI Dependency Notation. Decoding a Counter. Decoding Glitches. Cascading BCD Counters. Synchronous Counter Design. Shift-Register Counters.
Part II. Counter Applications: Frequency Counter. Counter Applications: Digital Clock. Integrated-Circuit Registers. Parallel In/Parallel Out—The 74ALS174/74HC174. Serial In/Serial Out—The 4731B. Parallel In/Serial Out—The 74ALS165/74HC165. Serial In/Parallel Out—The 74ALS164/74HC164. IEEE/ANSI Register Symbols. Troubleshooting. Programming PLDs as Counters Using Boolean Equations.

8. Integrated-Circuit Logic Families.
Digital IC Terminology. The TTL Logic Family. TTL Data Sheets. TTL Series Characteristics. TTL Loading and Fanout. Other TTL Characteristics. MOS Technology. Digital MOSFET Circuits. Complementary MOS Logic. CMOS Series Characteristics. Low-Voltage Technology. Open- Collector/Open-Drain Outputs. Tristate (Three-State) Logic Outputs. High-Speed Bus Interface Logic. The ECL Digital IC Family. CMOS Transmission Gate (Bilateral Switch). IC Interfacing. TTL Driving CMOS. CMOS Driving TTL. Analog Voltage Comparators. Troubleshooting.

9. MSI Logic Circuits.
Decoders. BCD-to-7-Segment Decoder/Drivers. Liquid-Crystal Displays. Encoders. Troubleshooting. Multiplexers (Data Selectors). Multiplexer Applications. Demultiplexers (Data Distributors). More Troubleshooting. Magnitude Comparator. Code Converters. Data Busing. The 74ALS173/HC173 Tristate Register. Data Bus Operation. PLDs and Truth Table Entry.

10. Interfacing with the Analog World.
Interfacing with the Analog World. Digital-to-Analog Conversion. D/A-Converter Circuitry. DAC Specifications. An Integrated-Circuit DAC. DAC Applications. Troubleshooting DACs. Analog-to-Digital Conversion. Digital-Ramp ADC. Data Acquisition. Successive-Approximation ADC. Flash ADCs. Other A/D Conversion Methods. Digital Voltmeter. Sample-and-Hold Circuits. Multiplexing. Digital Storage Oscilloscope. Digital Signal Processing (DSP).

11. Memory Devices.
Memory Terminology. General Memory Operation. CPU-Memory Connections. Read-Only Memories. ROM Architecture. ROM Timing. Types of ROMs. Flash Memory. ROM Applications. Semiconductor RAM. RAM Architecture. Static RAM (SRAM). Dynamic RAM (DRAM). Dynamic RAM Structure and Operation. DRAM Read/Write Cycles. DRAM Refreshing. DRAM Technology. Expanding Word Size and Capacity. Special Memory Functions. Troubleshooting RAM Systems. Testing ROM.

12. Applications of a Programmable Logic Device.
Fundamentals of PLD Circuitry. PLD Architectures. The GAL 16V8A (Generic Array Logic). Relating CUPL Fuse Plots to GAL 16V8 Architecture. Design Problems. The GAL 22V10. Keypad Encoder. Advanced PLD Development.

Appendix A: Introduction to the Microprocessor and the Microcomputer.
What Is a Digital Computer? How Do Computers Think? Secret Agent. Basic Computer System Organization. Basic …mC Elements. Computer Words. Instruction Words. Executing a Machine-Language Program. Typical …mC Structure. Final Comments.

Appendix B: Manufacturers' IC Data Sheets.
Glossary.
Answers to Selected Problems.
Index of ICs.
Index.

Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book is a comprehensive study of the principles and techniques of modern digital systems. It is intended for use in two- and four-year programs in technology, engineering, and computer science. Although a background in basic electronics is helpful, the majority of the material requires no electronics training. Those portions of the text that utilize electronic concepts can be skipped without adversely affecting the comprehension of the logic principles.

General Improvements

This eighth edition contains several general improvements to the seventh edition. All of the material has been checked for currency and updated wherever necessary. Some of the material has been rewritten for greater clarity and completeness. Several new examples, section review questions, and end-of-chapter problems have been added, both to reinforce the new text material and to support the retained material better.

PLD COVERAGE The most striking change in this eighth edition of Digital Systems: Principles and Applications is the new approach to teaching programmable logic devices (PLDs). This book has been rewritten to teach the PLD as one of the ways, along with traditional integrated circuits, to implement circuits from the simplest gates to the most complicated digital systems. Whenever a major change in technology occurs, there is a period during which educational institutions must decide when and how to change the way they teach related topics. Some of us remember the transition from vacuum tubes to transistors, and most of us remember the shift from transistor circuits to op-amps. Over the past 15 years, thetechnologyof digital systems has moved toward programmable logic. Very few new digital systems today use small-scale and medium-scale integrated circuits in anything other than a minor role. Most modern digital circuitry is contained in a programmable device, gate array, or full custom integrated circuit. Still, in order to learn how to create those "systems in a chip," students must first understand the building blocks, such as decoders, multiplexers, adders, buffers, latches, registers, counters, and so on. In introductory lab-based courses, the wiring and testing of these building blocks is still a vital part of the pedagogy. It solidifies concepts such as binary inputs and outputs, physical device operation, and practical limitations. It also provides a realistic forum for developing troubleshooting skills.

The wiring of these circuits on a conventional breadboard still provides a means of learning that is not attainable through graphics, simulation, or text descriptions. However, programmable devices can be used to demonstrate these concepts just as effectively as medium-scale integrated circuits. Because the means to implement these circuits in current technology is with the PLD, the skills necessary to use PLDs must be developed concurrently with the knowledge of basic building blocks. We believe that PLDs can be used to implement logic circuits long before the student has acquired enough knowledge to fully understand all of the inner workings of a PLD. In so doing, students are given a chance to learn the development and programming steps using relatively simple circuits. Later they can expand their knowledge of advanced features of programming languages as they become aware of more advanced circuits. Eventually, after learning all the building blocks, students can understand the circuitry of a PLD in order to take full advantage of its capabilities and realize its limitations.

SEQUENCING Our approach to PLDs in this edition gives instructors three options: (1) The PLD material can be skipped in its entirety without affecting the continuity of the text; (2) PLDs can be taught as a separate topic by skipping PLD material initially and then going back to the last sections of Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9 before reading Chapter 12; or (3) PLDs can be introduced as the course unfolds—chapter by chapter—and woven into the fabric of the lecture/lab experience. We believe our approach will provide maximum flexibility for a variety of courses and objectives.

It is a rare instructor who uses the chapters of a textbook in the sequence in which they are presented. This book was written so that, for the most part, each chapter builds on previous material, but it is possible to alter the chapter sequence somewhat. The first part of Chapter 6 (arithmetic operations) can be covered right after Chapter 2 (number systems), although this would produce a long interval before the arithmetic circuits of Chapter 6 are encountered. Much of the material in Chapter 8 (IC characteristics) can be covered earlier (e.g., after Chapter 4 or 5) without causing any serious problems.

This book can be used either in a one-term course or in a two-term sequence. When used in one term, it may be necessary, depending on available class hours, to omit some topics. Here is a list of sections and chapters that can be deleted with minimal disruption. Obviously, the choice of deletions will depend on factors such as program or course objectives and student background:

 Chapter 1: All
Chapter 2: Section 6
Chapter 4: Sections 7, 10-14
Chapter 5: Sections 3, 24-26
Chapter 6: Sections 5-7, 11, 13, 16-20
Chapter 7:Sections 10, 14, 23-25
Chapter 8: Sections 11, 14-21
Chapter 9: Sections 5, 9, 15
Chapter 10: Sections 7, 14-18
Chapter 11: Sections 17-21
Chapter 12: All

PROBLEM SETS The seventh edition contained four categories of problems: challenging (C), troubleshooting (T), new (N), and design (D). The eighth edition adds the category of basic (B) to designate problems that are very fundamental applications of the concepts in that particular chapter. Also, we have added more problems that exercise a basic understanding. Undesignated problems are considered to be of intermediate difficulty, between basic and challenging.

DATA SHEETS Although a few data sheets are retained in Appendix B, the accompanying CDROM is now the primary source of manufacturers' data sheets. The information on this single CD is equivalent to an entire shelf full of data books covering all TTL, CMOS, and high-speed bus interface logic ICs. We feel this will provide students with a much more complete reference resource while retaining enough printed data sheets to teach them how to read and interpret data sheet content in the absence of a computer with CD-ROM capability.

SIMULATION FILES This edition also includes simulation files that can be loaded into Electronics Workbench and CircuitMaker. The circuit schematics of many of the figures throughout the text have been captured as input files for these two popular simulation tools. Each file has some way of demonstrating the operation of the circuit or reinforcing a concept. In many cases, instruments are attached to the circuit and input sequences are applied to demonstrate the concept presented in one of the figures of the text. These circuits can then be modified as desired to expand on topics or create assignments and tutorials for students. All figures in the text that have a corresponding simulation file on the CD-ROM are identified by an icon.

IC TECHNOLOGY This new edition continues the practice begun with the last two editions of giving more prominence to CMOS as the principal IC technology in the small- and medium-scale integration applications. This has been accomplished while still retaining the substantial coverage of TTL logic.

REAL-WORLD APPLICATIONS The examples of real-world applications that were distributed throughout previous editions have been retained to motivate those students who ask, "Why do we need to know this?" Some examples are copy machine control circuits, liquid process control sequencer circuits, space shuttle battery-voltage monitor, digital thermostat, and a look-up table function generator. PLD examples are chosen to offer an alternate way to implement equivalent SSI and MSI circuitry that is explained earlier in the text. However, new PLD examples are included that consolidate several types of circuits and several design methods in a single PLD system. For example, the universal stepper motor driver depicted in Figure P-1 uses a single GAL 16V8 to implement the sequencer, decoder, and tristate buffered outputs for an interface circuit that is very useful when working with stepper motors in the lab. Figure P-2 shows a scanned keypad encoder that is very useful as an input device to microprocessors and other digital systems. It includes sequential ring counter circuits as well as encoders and tristate output control. These are circuits that can easily be built and used in future experiments involving digital systems.

Specific Changes

The major changes in the topical coverage are:

  • Chapter 1. A look at the "digital future" has been updated.
  • Chapter 2. This chapter now covers new and improved methods for using calculators to perform conversions between number systems.
  • Chapter 3. IEEE standard symbol coverage has been reduced.
  • Chapter 4. (1) Material on K-mapping, including a complete example using "don't cares," has been added. (2) PLDs are introduced as another way of implementing logic circuits. The general concepts of PLD hardware are introduced in the simplest possible way, showing basic sum-of-products circuits programmed using fuse technology. This chapter describes the required computer hardware and programming fixture along with the role each plays in the development process. A specific high-level hardware description language is introduced and a simple combinational logic circuit is implemented as an example of the entire process.
  • Chapter 5. Logic circuits with feedback, including SR and D latches, are implemented using PLDs. The state transition method of hardware description is used to implement a simple counter circuit on a PLD.
  • Chapter 6. A section is added that demonstrates a 4-bit full adder implemented on a PLD. The use of set notation in the hardware description language is introduced along with indexed variables to combine 4-bit data sets logically.
  • Chapter 7. (1) Material on the 74178 (obsolete) has been deleted, and coverage of the 74165 and 74174 ICs has been expanded. (2) The registered outputs of PLDs are introduced along with two more methods of specifying the state sequence of a counter circuit (state machine).
  • Chapter 8. Several incremental revisions and changes in technology have motivated a substantial rearrangement of topics in Chapter 8. Ball grid array packages are introduced. All TTL examples and data sheets now feature the ALS series, while the fundamental circuit characteristics are described using the more easily understood standard TTL. In addition, the topical coverage of MOS and CMOS has been consolidated and the coverage of PMOS and NMOS reduced to reflect current industrial use and emphasis on CMOS as the most popular technology today. ECL material is updated. The continued expansion of low-voltage technologies is updated. Open-collector and open-drain circuit descriptions are consolidated to eliminate redundancy and tristate logic coverage is improved. The high-speed bus interface series are also introduced, along with a brief introduction to the nature of transmission lines and the need for bus terminations.
  • Chapter 9. This chapter describes color LCD displays and technology used in laptop computer screens. Gas discharge (vacuum fluorescent) displays and two IEEE notation sections have been deleted. A section on PLDs covers the use of the truth table method of hardware description. Conventional MSIC functions are implemented using PLDs.
  • Chapter 10. The section on sampling has been expanded to address the issue of minimum sample rate (Nyquist) and signal abasing. The application of A/D and D/A converters to the rapidly growing field of digital signal processing is expanded with a basic and easy-to-understand introduction to DSP.
  • Chapter 11. All PLD material has been edited or moved to other areas of the text, mostly Chapter 12. Coverage of terms and concepts often referred to in PC literature is expanded, including a snapshot of the transient state of DRAM technology, definition of latency and its effect on execution speed, as well as a description of L1 and L2 cache systems in modern PCs. Circular buffers are introduced as a memory structure due to their prevalent use in DSP systems.
  • Chapter 12. This chapter has been rewritten to begin with an overview of the internal hardware of simple PLDs. The material from Chapter 11 of the seventh edition has been revised and combined with material from Chapter 12. The popular GAL 22V10 is also introduced with an example that requires its added capability. Two complete and very practical digital systems-a universal stepper motor driver and a scanned keypad encoder-are implemented using a single PLD. Material has been added to offer a glimpse into the real world of advanced digital system design by describing other hardware definition languages (HDL) and the general architecture of the more advanced field programmable gate arrays.
  • Appendix A. The material on microprocessors (Chapter 13 in past editions) has admittedly been a superficial introduction to a very important and complex subject. We believe most programs cover this material in another course and use a text dedicated to the subject. Consequently, we have relegated the material to Appendix A with intentions of eventually phasing this material out of the book. We invite feedback on these plans by way of the Prentice Hall Companion Website for this book, ...

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