Diplomacy in Black and White is the first book on the Adams-Louverture alliance. Historian and former diplomat Ronald Angelo Johnson details the aspirations of the Americans and Dominguanstwo revolutionary peoplesand how they played significant roles in a hostile Atlantic world. Remarkably, leaders of both governments established multiracial relationships amid environments dominated by slavery and racial hierarchy. And though U.S.-Dominguan diplomacy did not end slavery in the United States, it altered Atlantic world discussions of slavery and race well into the twentieth century.
Diplomacy in Black and White reflects the capacity of leaders from disparate backgrounds to negotiate political and societal constraints to make lives better for the groups they represent. Adams and Louverture brought their peoples to the threshold of a lasting transracial relationship. And their shared history reveals the impact of decisions made by powerful people at pivotal moments. But in the end, a permanent alliance failed to emerge, and instead, the two republics born of revolution took divergent paths.
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Table of Contents
List of Illustrations xi
Introduction: The Atlantic World: "An Ocean of Uncertainty" 1
1 Saint-Dominguan Revolution: "We Can and Must Do Something There" 13
2 U.S. Involvement: "Even South Carolinians Voted for It" 39
3 Edward Stevens: "Our Minister to Toussaint" 68
4 Dominguan-American Diplomacy: "So Natural" 87
5 Allied Command: "Willing to Serve General Toussaint" 113
6 The United States and Hispaniola: "On a Permanent and Advantageous Footing" 137
7 After Adams and Louverture: "Great Changes Likely to Take Place" 161