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CHAPTER II. PLAGUE AND EPIDEMIC DISEASES. Section I. Plagues. SEVERAL Hebrew words are translated by the word plague in the Old Testament, and as used in both the Old and New Testament the term is of very wide signification. Indeed, this and corresponding terms, such as pest and pestilence in modern language, have been employed to denote not only various malignant diseases, but also both moral and physical evil of various kinds. The English word plague and the Latin plaga are derived from the Greek wA.?jy?j, and this from the verb, the radical meaning of which is to strike or smite. When now used with the definite article to denote the historic fatal form of epidemic malignant fever, it is equivalent to the Greek Xot/xoy, and to the pestis and . pestilenza of modern language. Hippocrates and the earlier medical writers do not appear to have used the term with precision, as denoting only one form of malignant epidemic disease. But what is now understood as the plague or true'bubo-plague'has characters as distinct as those of small-pox or scarlatina, and maybe traced probably as far back as the third century B. C. Oribasius gives a quotation from Rufus, showing that in the time of aphysician called Dionysius (about B.C. 277?), a certain disease was known and described as ' pestilentes bubones maxime letales et acuti, qui maxima circa Libyam et Egyptum et Syriam observantur.' And the description which Rufus gives of the disease, as seen by certain physicians in Libya about the time of the Christian era, leaves no doubt as to this being what is now called the plague or true bubo-plague. It is therefore probable that this pestilence existed in Egypt even in the time of the Exodus,though there are no sufficient marks given us in the Mosaic record to enable us to identify an...