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This volume contains the main papers presented at the 1997 EUROTOX Congress, Århus, Denmark, 24-28 June 1997. Diversification in toxicology is seen as the application of basic science to such diverse areas as man and his environment. The pressing issues which have been dealt with not only include reproductive effects of environmental chemicals ("xenoestrogens"), but also receptor-mediated toxic responses, new frontiers in human and ecological toxicology, chemoprevention of cancer and molecular approaches in toxicological research. The practical and ethical facets of toxicology, e.g. ecotoxicological risk assessment, biomarkers of exposure, complex chemical mixtures as well as animal welfare and the ethics of animal experimentation, are also treated.
Table of ContentsThe Gerhard Zbinden Memorial Lecture.- Molecular Basis of Halothane Hepatitis.- Plenary Lecture.- Receptor-Mediated Toxicity.- Animals as Models in Toxicology: Animal Welfare and Ethics.- Animal Burdens versus Human Benefits How Should the Ethical Limits be Drawn for Use of Animals as Models in Toxicology?.- Behavior of Laboratory Animals under Unnatural Conditions.- The Impact of Stress and Discomfort on Experimental Outcome.- Priorities in the Development of Alternative Methodologies in the Pharmaceutical Industry.- Development and Strategic Use of Alternative Tests in Assessing the Hazard of Chemicals.- Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment.- Soil Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment: How to Find Avenues in a Pitch Dark Labyrinth.- Monitoring and Risk Assessment for Endocrine Disruptors in the Aquatic Environment: A Biomarker Approach.- Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Reproduction.- Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Persistent Environmental Pollutants.- Effects of the In Vitro Chemical Environment During Early Embryogenesis on Subsequent Development.- Influence of Hormones and Hormone Antagonists on Sexual Differentiation of the Brain.- Reproductive Effects from Oestrogen Activity in Polluted Water.- Effects of Chemical-Induced DNA Damage on Male Germ Cells.- Biomarkers of Exposure.- Animal Locomotor Behaviour as a Health Biomarker of Chemical Stress.- Markers of Exposure to Aromatic Amines and Nitro-PAH.- Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Pollution-Exposed Mice.- Current Molecular Approaches in Toxicology.- Detection of Low Levels of DNA Damage Arising from Exposure of Humans to Chemical Carcinogens.- Chemoprevention.- Natural Antioxidants in Chemoprevention.- Development of In Vitro Models for Cellular and Molecular Studies inToxicology and Chemoprevention.- Bioavailability and Health Effects of Dietary Flavonols in Man.- Epidemiological Studies on Antioxidants, Lipid Peroxidation and Atherosclerosis.- Regulatory Immunotoxicology: The Scientist’s Point of View.- Regulatory Immunotoxicology The Scientist’s Point of View: An Introduction.- Contact and Respiratory Allergy: A Regulatory Perspective.- Immunotoxicology: Extrapolation from. Animal to Man Estimation of the In munotoxicologic Risk Associated with TBTO Exposure.- Regulating Immunotoxicity Evaluation: Issues and Needs.- Novel Issues of Risk Assessment of Chemical Carcinogens.- Biomarkers in Metabolic Subtyping Relevance for Environmental Cancer Control.- Assessment of Animal Tumour Promotion Data for the Human Situation.- Use of Transgenic Mutational Test Systems in Risk Assessment of Carcinogens.- Assessing Toxicological Impacts in Life Cycle Assessment.- Complex Mixtures.- Risk Asssessment for Complex Chemical Exposure in Aquatic Systems: The Problem of Estimating Interactive Effects.- Exposure of Humans to Complex Chemical Mixtures: Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment.- Receptor Mediated Toxic Responses.- Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Alpha and the Pleiotropic Responses to Peroxisome Proliferators.- Excitotoxicity in the Brain.- New Frontiers in Human and Ecological Toxicology: Determining Genetic vs. Environmental Causes of Susceptibility.- Variability in the Response of Daphnia Clones to Toxic Substances: Are Safety Margins Being Compromised?.- Sources and Implications of Variability in Sensitivity to Chemicals for Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment.- Polymorphism in Glutathione S-Transferase Loci as a Risk Factor for Common Cancers.- Population Responses to Contaminant Exposure in Marine Animals: Influences of Genetic Diversity Measured as Allozyme Polymorphism.- Extrahepatic Metabolism in Target Organ Toxicity.- The Use of Transgenic Animals to Assess the Role of Metabolism in Target Organ Toxicity.- Extrahepatic Cytochrome P450: Role in In Situ Toxicity and Cell-Specific Hormone Sensitivity.- Expression of Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Cyto chrome P450s in Human Pulmonary Tissues.- Comparison of GST Theta Activity in Liver and Kidney of Four Species.- The Young Scientist Poster Award.- Haloalkene Conjugate Toxicity: The Role of Human Renal Cysteine Conjugate C-S Lyase.